|أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn|
مؤسس ومدير المنتدى
عدد المساهمات : 31716
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|موضوع: 2011 Egyptian revolution السبت 13 أغسطس 2011, 2:35 am|| |
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
2011 Egyptian revolution
The 2011 Egyptian revolution (Arabic: ثورة ٢٥ يناير thawret 25 yanāyir, Revolution of 25 January) took place following a popular uprising that began on 25 January 2011. The uprising, in which the participants placed emphasis on the peaceful nature of the struggle, mainly comprised a campaign of civil resistance, which featured a series of demonstrations, marches, acts of civil disobedience, and labor strikes. Millions of protesters from a variety of socio-economic and religious backgrounds demanded the overthrow of the regime of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak.
Despite being predominantly peaceful in nature, the revolution was not without violent clashes between security forces and protesters. The campaign took place in Cairo, Alexandria, and in other cities in Egypt, following the Tunisian Revolution that saw the overthrow of the long-time Tunisian president. On 11 February, following weeks of determined popular protest and pressure, Mubarak resigned from office.
Grievances of Egyptian protesters focused on legal and political issues including police brutality, state of emergency laws, lack of free elections and freedom of speech, uncontrollable corruption, as well as economic issues including high unemployment, food price inflation, and low minimum wages.
The primary demands from protest organizers were the end of the Hosni Mubarak regime, the end of emergency law, freedom, justice, a responsive non-military government, and a say in the management of Egypt's resources. Strikes by labor unions added to the pressure on government officials
There were at least 384 deaths reported, and over 6,000 were injured. The capital city of Cairo was described as "a war zone," and the port city of Suez was the scene of frequent violent clashes. The government imposed a curfew that protesters defied and that the police and military did not enforce. The presence of Egypt's Central Security Forces police, loyal to Mubarak, was gradually replaced by largely restrained military troops.
In the absence of police, there was looting by gangs that opposition sources said were instigated by plainclothes police officers. In response, civilians self-organised watch groups to protect neighbourhoods.
International response to the protests was initially mixed, though most called for some sort of peaceful protests on both sides and moves toward reform. Mostly Western governments also expressed concern for the situation.
Many governments issued travel advisories and began making attempts at evacuating their citizens from the country. The Egyptian Revolution, along with Tunisian events, has influenced demonstrations in other Arab countries including Yemen, Bahrain, Jordan and Libya.
Mubarak dissolved his government and appointed military figure and former head of the Egyptian General Intelligence Directorate Omar Suleiman as Vice-President in an attempt to quell dissent. Mubarak asked aviation minister and former chief of Egypt's Air Force, Ahmed Shafik, to form a new government.
Mohamed ElBaradei became a major figure of the opposition, with all major opposition groups supporting his role as a negotiator for some form of transitional unity government. In response to mounting pressure Mubarak announced he would not seek re-election in September.
On 11 February, Vice President Omar Suleiman announced that Mubarak would be stepping down as president and turning power over to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces.
The junta, headed by effective head of state Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, announced on 13 February that the constitution would be suspended, both houses of parliament dissolved, and that the military would rule for six months until elections could be held. The prior cabinet, including Prime Minister Ahmed Shafik, would continue to serve as a caretaker government until a new one is formed.
Shafik resigned on 3 March 2011, a day before major protests to get him to step down were planned; he was replaced by Essam Sharaf, the former transport minister.
In Egypt and also the wider Arab world, the protests and subsequent changes in the government, are mostly called the 25 January Revolution (ثورة 25 ينايرThawrat 25 Yanāyir( and Rage Revolution (ثورة الغضب),and sometimes called the Revolution of the Youth ثورة الشباب Thawrat al-Shabāb), Lotus Revolution] (ثورة اللوتس) or the White Revolution (الثورة البيضاء )(al-Thawrah al-bayḍāʾ). In the Media it has been known as the "18 Day Revolution".
Hosni Mubarak became head of Egypt's semi-presidential republic government following the assassination of President Anwar El Sadat, and continued to serve until his departure in 2011. Mubarak's 30-year reign made him the longest serving President in Egypt's history.
Mubarak and his National Democratic Party (NDP) government maintained one-party rule under a continuous state of emergency since 1981.
Mubarak's government earned the support of the West and a continuation of annual aid from the United States by maintaining policies of suppression towards Islamic militants and peace with Israel.
Hosni Mubarak was often compared to an Egyptian pharaoh by the media and by some of his harsher critics due to his authoritarian rule.
Inheritance of power
The grooming of Gamal Mubarak to be his father's successor as the next president of Egypt became increasingly evident at around the year 2000. With no vice-president, and with no heir-apparent in sight, Gamal started enjoying considerable attention in the Egyptian media.
Bashar al-Assad's rise to power in Syria in June 2000 just hours after Hafez al-Assad's death, sparked a heated debate in the Egyptian press regarding the prospects for a similar scenario occurring in Cairo.
Both President Mubarak and his son denied the possibility of any inheritance of power in Egypt, although this was widely speculated. Most recently, this claim was made in early 2006, when Gamal Mubarak declared repeatedly that he has no aspiration to succeed his father, but that he will maintain his position in the NDP as deputy secretary general, a post he holds in addition to heading the party's policy committee, probably the most important organ of the NDP.
In September 2004 several political groups (most are unofficial), on both the left and the right, announced their sharp opposition to the inheritance of power.
They demanded political change and asked for a fair election with more than one candidate
An emergency law (Law No. 162 of 1958) was enacted after the 1967 Six-Day War, suspended for 18 months in the early 1980s, and continuously in effect since President Sadat's 1981 assassination. Under the law, police powers are extended, constitutional rights suspended, censorship is legalized, and the government may imprison individuals indefinitely and without reason.
The law sharply limits any non-governmental political activity, including street demonstrations, non-approved political organizations, and unregistered financial donations.
The Mubarak government has cited the threat of terrorism in order to extend the emergency law, claiming that opposition groups like the Muslim Brotherhood could come into power in Egypt if the current government did not forgo parliamentary elections and suppressed the group through actions allowed under emergency law. This has led to the imprisonment of activists without trials, illegal undocumented hidden detention facilities, and rejecting university, mosque, and newspaper staff members based on their political inclination. A parliamentary election in December 2010 was preceded by a media crackdown, arrests, candidate bans (particularly of the Muslim Brotherhood), and allegations of fraud involving the near unanimous victory by the ruling party in parliament. Human rights organizations estimate that in 2010 between 5,000 and 10,000 people were in long-term detention without charge or trial.
The deployment of plainclothes forces paid by Mubarak's ruling party, Baltageya (Arabic بلطجية), has been a hallmark of the Mubarak government. The Egyptian Organisation for Human Rights has documented 567 cases of torture, including 167 deaths, by police that occurred between 1993 and 2007. On 6 June 2010, Khaled Mohamed Saeed died under disputed circumstances in the Sidi Gaber area of Alexandria. Multiple witnesses testified that Saeed was beaten to death by the police. Activists rallying around a Facebook page called "We are all Khaled Said" succeeded in bringing nationwide attention to the case. Mohamed ElBaradei, former head of the International Atomic Energy Agency, led a rally in 2010 in Alexandria against alleged abuses by the police and visited Saeed's family to offer condolences.
Additionally, as reported by D+Z, a development magazine based in Germany, excessive force was often used by law enforcement agencies. Their police forces constantly squelched democratic uprisings with brutal force and corrupt tactics, as they did in the latest and only successful demonstration.
The population of Egypt grew from 30,083,419 in 1966 to roughly 79,000,000 by 2008. The vast majority of Egyptians live in the limited spaces near the banks of the Nile River, in an area of about 40,000 square kilometers (15,000 sq mi), where the only arable land is found and competing with the need of human habitations. In late 2010, around 40% of Egypt's population of just under 80 million lived on the fiscal income equivalent of roughly US$2 per day with a large part of the population relying on subsidised goods.
According to the Peterson Institute for International Economics, the basic problem Egypt has is unemployment driven by a demographic youth bulge: with the number of new people entering the job force at about 4% a year, unemployment in Egypt is almost 10 times as high for college graduates as it is for people who have gone through elementary school, particularly educated urban youth, who are precisely the people currently seen out in the streets.
Reform, growth, and poverty
Egypt's economy was highly centralized during the rule of former President Gamal Abdel Nasser but opened up considerably under former President Anwar Sadat and Mubarak. The Mubarak-led government from 2004 to 2008 aggressively pursued economic reforms to attract foreign investment and facilitate GDP growth, but postponed further economic reforms because of global economic turmoil. The international economic downturn slowed Egypt's GDP growth to 4.5% in 2009. In 2010, analysts assessed the government of Prime Minister Ahmed Nazif would need to restart economic reforms to attract foreign investment, boost growth, and improve economic conditions for the broader population. Despite high levels of national economic growth over the past few years, living conditions for the average Egyptian remained poor
Political corruption in Mubarak administration's Ministry of Interior has risen dramatically due to the increased power over the institutional system necessary to prolong the presidency. The rise to power of powerful business men in the NDP in the government and the People's Assembly led to massive waves of anger during the years of Prime Ministers Ahmed Nazif's government. An example of that is Ahmed Ezz's monopolizing the steel industry in Egypt by holding more than 60% of the market share. Aladdin Elaasar, an Egyptian biographer and an American professor, estimates that the Mubarak family is worth from $50 to $70 billion.
The wealth of Ahmed Ezz, the former NDP Organisation Secretary, is estimated to be 18 billion Egyptian pounds; The wealth of former Housing Minister Ahmed al-Maghraby is estimated to be more than 11 billion Egyptian pounds; The wealth of former Minister of Tourism Zuhair Garrana is estimated to be 13 billion Egyptian pounds; The wealth of former Minister of Trade and Industry, Rashid Mohamed Rashid, is estimated to be 12 billion Egyptian pounds; and the wealth of former Interior Minister Habib al-Adly is estimated to be 8 billion Egyptian pounds.
The perceptions of corruption and its beneficiaries being limited to businessmen with ties to the National Democratic Party have created a picture "where wealth fuels political power and political power buys wealth."
During the Egyptian parliamentary election, 2010, opposition groups complained of harassment and fraud perpetrated by the government. As such opposition and civil society activists have called for changes to a number of legal and constitutional provisions which affect elections.
In 2010, Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index report assessed Egypt with a CPI score of 3.1, based on perceptions of the degree of corruption from business people and country analysts (with 10 being clean and 0 being totally corrupt).
Lead-up to the protests
In background preparation for a possible overthrow of Mubarak, opposition groups had studied the work of Gene Sharp on non-violent revolution, including working with leaders of Otpor!, the student-led Serbian uprising in 2000. Copies of Sharp's list of 198 non-violent "weapons", translated into Arabic and not always attributed to him, were circulating in Tahrir Square during its occupation
After the ousting of Tunisian president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali due to mass protests, many analysts, including former European Commission President Romano Prodi, saw Egypt as the next country where such a revolution might occur. The Washington Post comments on this saying "The Jasmine Revolution, should serve as a stark warning to Arab leaders – beginning with Egypt's 83-year-old Hosni Mubarak – that their refusal to allow more economic and political opportunity is dangerous and untenable." However, others argued on the contrary citing little aspiration of the Egyptian people, low educational levels and a strong government with the support of the military. The BBC said "The simple fact is that most Egyptians do not see any way that they can change their country or their lives through political action, be it voting, activism, or going out on the streets to demonstrate
On 17 January due to rising discontent with the country's state and the poor living conditions, and following the self-immolation of Mohamed Bouazizi in Tunisia, a man set himself ablaze in front of the Egyptian parliament; about five more attempts of self-immolation followed suit
National Police Day protests
Opposition groups were planning a day of revolt for 25 January, coinciding with the National Police Day. The purpose was to protest against abuses by the police in front of the Ministry of Interior. These demands expanded to include the resignation of the Minister of Interior, the restoration of a fair minimum wage, the end of Egyptian emergency law and term limits for the president.
Twenty-six-year-old Asmaa Mahfouz was instrumental in having sparked the protests that began the uprising in Cairo. In a video blog posted two weeks before the start of the revolution, she urged the Egyptian people to join her in a protest on 25 January in Tahrir Square to bring down Mubarak's regime. She used video blogging and social media that went viral and urged people not to be afraid. The April 6 Youth Movement was a major supporter of the protest and distributed 20,000 leaflets saying "I will protest on 25 January to get my rights."
The protests were illegal, since permission required to proceed with the demonstration had not been acquired, and the security forces had to respond according to law. Many political movements, opposition parties and public figures chose to support the day of revolt including Youth for Justice and Freedom, Coalition of the Youth of the Revolution, the Popular Democratic Movement for Change and the National Association for Change. However, its leader Mohamed El Baradei, did not support the protests saying that he "would like to use the means available from within the system to effect change.
" The Ghad, Karama, Wafd and Democratic Front Many others became involved in support of the protests. The Muslim Brotherhood, Egypt's largest opposition group, confirmed on January 23 that it will partake in the protests and participate. Public figures including novelist Alaa Al Aswany, writer Belal Fadl, and actors Amr Waked and Khaled Aboul Naga announced they would also participate. The Facebook group set up specifically for the event attracted 80,000 attendees. However, the leftist National Progressive Unionist Party (the Tagammu) stated it would not participate. The Coptic Church also urged Christians not to participate in the protests.
25 January 2011: The "Day of Revolt", protests erupted throughout Egypt, with tens of thousands of protestors gathered in Cairo and thousands more in cities throughout Egypt. The protests targeted President Hosni Mubarak's government, and mostly adhered to non-violence. Nonetheless reports emerged of civilian and police casualties.
26 January 2011: ""Shutting down The Internet"": After several Facebook groups were created and so-called tweets (from Twitter) facilitated mass demonstrations, the Egyptian government decided to shut down internet access for most of the Egyptian people. This was done to impede protestors communicate.
28 January 2011: The "Friday of Anger" protests began. Hundreds of thousands demonstrated in Cairo (which also saw the arrival of opposition leader Mohamed ElBaradei) and other Egyptian cities after Friday Prayers. There were reports of looting, and prisons were opened and burned down on orders from then-Minister of the Interior Habib El Adly, causing prison inmates to escape en-masse, in what was believed to an attempt to terrorize protesters. The prison breaks were coupled with the complete withdrawal of police forces from the streets.
The military was ordered to deploy to assist the police. International fears of violence grew, but no major casualties were reported. President Hosni Mubarak made his first address to the nation, after 4 days of ongoing protests and pledged to form a new government. Later that night clashes broke out in Tahrir Square between Revolutionaries and Pro-Mubarak Thugs, leading to the injury of several, and the death of Karim Ahmed Ragab
29 January 2011: The military presence in Cairo increased, and a curfew was declared, but protests increased and even continued throughout the night. The military reportedly refused to follow orders to fire live ammunition, and exercised restraint overall. There were no reports of major casualties.
1 February 2011: Mubarak made a televised address once again after unceasing protests, and offered several concessions. He pledged he would not run for another term in elections planned for September, and pledged political reforms. He stated he would stay in office to oversee a peaceful transition. Small but violent clashes began that night between pro-Mubarak and anti-Mubarak groups.
2 February 2011: "Battle of the Camel". Violence escalated as waves of Mubarak supporters met anti-government protesters, and some Mubarak supporters rode on camels and horses into Tahrir Square. The clashes were believed to have been orchestrated by Habib El Adly, and there were hundreds of casualties. The military tried to limit the violence, repeatedly separating anti-Mubarak and pro-Mubarak groups. President Mubarak reiterated his refusal to step down in interviews with several news agencies. Incidents of violence toward journalists and reporters escalated amid speculation that the violence was being actively aggravated by Mubarak as a way to end the protests.
6 February 2011: Egyptian Christians held Sunday Mass in Tahrir Square, protected by a ring of Muslims. Negotiations involving Egyptian Vice President Omar Suleiman and representatives of the opposition commenced amid continuing protests throughout the nation.
The Egyptian army assumed greater security responsibilities, maintaining order and guarding Egypt’s museums. Suleiman offered reforms, while others of Mubarak's regime accused foreign nations, including the US, of interfering in Egypt’s affairs.
10 February 2011: Mubarak formally addressed Egypt amid speculation of a military coup, but rather than resigning (as was widely expected), he simply stated he would delegate some of his powers to Vice President Suleiman, while continuing as Egypt's head of state. Reactions to Mubarak's statement were marked by anger, frustration and disappointment, and throughout various cities there was an escalation of the number and intensity of demonstrations.
11 February 2011: The "Friday of Departure": Massive protests continued in many cities as Egyptians refused the concessions announced by Mubarak. Finally, at 6:00 p.m. local time, Suleiman announced Mubarak's resignation, entrusting the Supreme Council of Egyptian Armed Forces with the leadership of the country.
13 February 2011: The Supreme Council dissolved Egypt’s parliament and suspended the Constitution in response to demands by demonstrators. The council also declared that it would hold power for six months, or until elections could be held. Calls were made that the council provide more details and specific timetables and deadlines.
Major protests subsided but did not end. In a gesture to a new beginning, protesters cleaned up and renovated Tahrir Square, the epicenter of the demonstrations, although many pledged they would continue protests until all demands had been met.
17 February 2011: The army stated it would not field a candidate in the upcoming presidential elections. Four important figures of the former regime were detained on that day: former interior minister Habib el-Adly, former minister of housing Ahmed Maghrabi and former tourism minister Zuheir Garana, as well as steel tycoon Ahmed Ezz.
2 March 2011: The constitutional referendum has been tentatively scheduled for 19 March 2011, but the date is yet to be officially confirmed.
3 March 2011: A day before large protests against him were planned, Ahmed Shafik stepped down as PM and was replaced by Essam Sharaf.
5 March 2011: Several State Security Intelligence (SSI) buildings were raided across Egypt by protesters, including the headquarters for Alexandria Governorate and the main national headquarters in Nasr City, Cairo. Protesters state they raided the buildings to secure documents they believed to show various crimes committed by the SSI against the people of Egypt during Mubarak's rule
6 March 2011: From the Nasr City headquarters protesters acquired evidence of mass surveillance and vote rigging, and noted rooms full of videotapes, piles of shredded and burned documents, and cells where activists recounted their experiences of detention and torture.
19 March 2011: The constitutional referendum was held and passed by 77.27%
22 March 2011: Parts of Interior Ministry building catches fire during police demonstrations outside it.
23 March 2011: The Egyptian Cabinet orders a law criminalizing protests and strikes. Under the new law, anyone organizing or calling for a protest will be sentenced to jail and/or a fine of LE500,000 (~100,000 USD).
Cities and regions : Mass civil disobedience
has been at the epicentre of much of the crisis. The largest protests were held in downtown Tahrir Square, which was considered the "protest movement’s beating heart and most effective symbol." On the first three days of the protests, there were clashes between the central security police and protesters and as of 28 January, police forces withdrew from all of Cairo.
Citizens then formed neighbourhood watch groups to keep the order as widespread looting was reported. Traffic police were reintroduced to Cairo on the morning of 31 January. An estimated 2 million people protested at Tahrir square.
Alexandria, the home of Khaled Saeed, had major protests and clashes against the police. Demonstrations continued and one on 3 February was reported to include 750,000 people. There were few confrontations as not many Mubarak supporters were around, except in occasional motorized convoys escorted by police.
The breakdown of law and order, including the general absence of police on the streets, continued through to at least the evening of 3 February, including the looting and burning of one the country's largest shopping centres. Alexandria protests were notable for the presence of Christians and Muslims jointly taking part in the events following the church bombing on 1 January, which saw street protests denouncing Mubarak's regime following the attack.
In the northern city of Mansoura there were protests against the
Mubarak regime every day from 25 January onwards. One protest on 1 February was estimated at one million people while on 3 February, 70,000 people were reported on the streets
The remote city of Siwa has thus far been reported as relatively calm. Local sheikhs, who were reportedly in control of the community, put the community under lockdown after a nearby town was "torched."
The city of Suez has seen the most violence of the protests thus far. Eyewitness reports have suggested that the death toll there may be higher, although confirmation has been difficult due to a ban on media coverage in the area. Some online activists have referred to Suez as Egypt's Sidi Bouzid, the Tunisian city where protests started. A labor strike was held on 8 February. Large protests took place on 11 February.
Tens of thousands of protesters took to the streets from the first day (Jan. 25th) and most of the days after until Feb. 11th. It exceeded a hundred thousand many times. Some hospitals reported casualties during the clashes of Friday Jan. 28th.
City of Beni Suef have seen repeated protests in front of the City Hall On el Kourneish, in front of Omar abd el Aziz Mosque, and in El Zerayeen Square, on most days of the protests and demonstrations. 12 protesters have been killed when Police Opened fire at Mass groups protesting in front of the Police Station in Beba, South Beni suef. Many others got injured. Thugs and outlaws have robbed many Governmental garages and burned down several Governmental buildings.
There were also protests in Luxor
Bedouins in the Sinai Peninsula fought the security forces for several weeks.
No protests or civil unrest took place in Sharm-El-Sheikh on 31 January. All was still calm as Hosni Mubarak and his family left on 11 February.
Police opened fire on protesters in the Deirout near the southern suburbs of Cairo and Asyut, on 11 February.
Tens of thousands of protesters took to the streets of Shebin el-Kom on 11 February.
Thousands protested in the city of El-Arish, in the Sinai Peninsula on 11 February.
Large protests took place in the southern city of Sohag on 11 February.
Large protests took place in the southern city of Minya on 11 February.
Nearly 100,000 people protested in and about the local government headquarters in Ismaïlia on 11 February.
Kafr El Sheikh
Large protests took place on 28 January and 4 February all over Kafr el-Sheikh.
Over 100,000 protesters took place in the 27 January in front of the city council in Zagazig
Egyptian women were highly active throughout the revolution. They took part in the protests themselves, were present in news clips and on Facebook forums, and were part of the leadership during the Egyptian revolution. In Tahrir Square, female protesters, some with their children, worked to support the protests. The overall peacefulness of the protesters, despite provocations, was credited in part to the participation of many women and children. The diversity of the protesters in Tahrir Square was visible in the women who participated; many wore head scarves and other signs of religious conservatism. Egyptian women also organized protests, and reported on the events; female bloggers such as Leil Zahra Mortada risked abuse or imprisonment by keeping the world informed of the daily scene in Tahrir Square and elsewhere. Among those who died was Sally Zahran, who was beaten to death during one of the demonstrations.
NASA reportedly plans to name one of its Mars exploration spacecraft in Zahran's honor The wide participation and the significant contributions by Egyptian women to the protests have been attributed to the fact that many, especially younger women, are better educated than previous generations, representing more than half of Egyptian university students. This has been an empowering factor for women, who have become more present and active publicly in recent years.
The advent of social media has also helped provide tools for women to become protest leaders.
The military's role
The Egyptian Armed Forces enjoy a better reputation with the public than the police does, the former perceived as a professional body protecting the country, the latter accused of systemic corruption and illegitimate violence.
All four Egyptian presidents since the 1950s have come from the military into power. Key Egyptian military personnel include the Defense Minister Mohamed Hussein Tantawi and General Sami Hafez Enan, Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces. The Egyptian military totals around 468,500 well-armed active personnel, plus a reserve of 479,000.
As Head of Egypt's Armed Forces, Tantawi has been described as "aged and change-resistant" and is attached to the old regime. He has used his position as Defense Minister to oppose reforms, economic and political, which he saw as weakening central government authority.
Other key figures, Sami Enan chief among them, are younger and have closer connections to both the US and groups such as the Muslim Brotherhood. An important aspect of the relationship between the Egyptian and American military establishments is the 1.3 billion dollars in military aid provided to Egypt annually, which in turn pays for American-made military equipment, and allows Egyptian officers to receive training in the US.
Guaranteed this aid package, the governing military council is for the most reform-resistant. One analyst however, while conceding that the military is change-resistant, states it has no option but to facilitate the process of democratization. Furthermore, the military will have to keep its role in politics limited to continue good relations with the West, and must not restrict the participation of political Islam if there is to be a genuine democracy.
Foreign governments in the West including the US have regarded Mubarak as an important ally and supporter in the Israeli-Palestinian peace negotiations.
After wars with Israel in 1967 and '73, Egypt signed a peace treaty in 1979, provoking controversy in the Arab world. As provisioned in the 1978 Camp David Accords, which led to the peace treaty, both Israel and Egypt receive billions of dollars in aid annually from the United States, with Egypt receiving over US$1.3 billion of military aid each year in addition to economic and development assistance. According to Juan Cole, many Egyptian youth feel ignored by Mubarak on the grounds that he is not looking out for their best interests and that he rather serves the interests of the West.
The cooperation of the Egyptian regime in enforcing the blockade of the Gaza Strip was also deeply unpopular amongst the general Egyptian public