منتديات إنما المؤمنون إخوة (2022 - 2010) The Believers Are Brothers
هل تريد التفاعل مع هذه المساهمة؟ كل ما عليك هو إنشاء حساب جديد ببضع خطوات أو تسجيل الدخول للمتابعة.

منتديات إنما المؤمنون إخوة (2022 - 2010) The Believers Are Brothers

(إسلامي.. دعوي.. تربوي.. ثقافي.. اجتماعي.. إعلامي.. طبي.. رياضي.. أدبي.. علمي.. تاريخي)
 
الرئيسيةالأحداثالتسجيل
قال الفيلسوف توماس كارليل في كتابه الأبطال عن رسول الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم-: "لقد أصبح من أكبر العار على أي فرد مُتمدين من أبناء هذا العصر؛ أن يُصْغِي إلى ما يظن من أنَّ دِينَ الإسلام كَذِبٌ، وأنَّ مُحَمَّداً -صلى الله عليه وسلم- خَدَّاعٌ مُزُوِّرٌ، وآنَ لنا أنْ نُحارب ما يُشَاعُ من مثل هذه الأقوال السَّخيفة المُخْجِلَةِ؛ فإنَّ الرِّسَالة التي أدَّاهَا ذلك الرَّسُولُ ما زالت السِّراج المُنير مُدَّةَ اثني عشر قرناً، لنحو مائتي مليون من الناس أمثالنا، خلقهم اللهُ الذي خلقنا، (وقت كتابة الفيلسوف توماس كارليل لهذا الكتاب)، إقرأ بقية كتاب الفيلسوف توماس كارليل عن سيدنا محمد -صلى الله عليه وسلم-، على هذا الرابط: محمد بن عبد الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم-.

يقول المستشرق الإسباني جان ليك في كتاب (العرب): "لا يمكن أن توصف حياة محمد بأحسن مما وصفها الله بقوله: (وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ إِلَّا رَحْمَةً لِّلْعَالَمِين) فكان محمدٌ رحمة حقيقية، وإني أصلي عليه بلهفة وشوق".
فَضَّلَ اللهُ مِصْرَ على سائر البُلدان، كما فَضَّلَ بعض الناس على بعض والأيام والليالي بعضها على بعض، والفضلُ على ضربين: في دِينٍ أو دُنْيَا، أو فيهما جميعاً، وقد فَضَّلَ اللهُ مِصْرَ وشَهِدَ لها في كتابهِ بالكَرَمِ وعِظَم المَنزلة وذَكَرَهَا باسمها وخَصَّهَا دُونَ غيرها، وكَرَّرَ ذِكْرَهَا، وأبَانَ فضلها في آياتٍ تُتْلَى من القرآن العظيم.
المهندس حسن فتحي فيلسوف العمارة ومهندس الفقراء: هو معماري مصري بارز، من مواليد مدينة الأسكندرية، وتخرَّجَ من المُهندس خانة بجامعة فؤاد الأول، اشْتُهِرَ بطرازهِ المعماري الفريد الذي استمَدَّ مَصَادِرَهُ مِنَ العِمَارَةِ الريفية النوبية المَبنية بالطوب اللبن، ومن البيوت والقصور بالقاهرة القديمة في العصرين المملوكي والعُثماني.
رُبَّ ضَارَّةٍ نَافِعَةٍ.. فوائدُ فيروس كورونا غير المتوقعة للبشرية أنَّه لم يكن يَخطرُ على بال أحَدِنَا منذ أن ظهر وباء فيروس كورونا المُستجد، أنْ يكونَ لهذه الجائحة فوائدُ وإيجابيات ملموسة أفادَت كوكب الأرض.. فكيف حدث ذلك؟!...
تخليص الإبريز في تلخيص باريز: هو الكتاب الذي ألّفَهُ الشيخ "رفاعة رافع الطهطاوي" رائد التنوير في العصر الحديث كما يُلَقَّب، ويُمَثِّلُ هذا الكتاب علامة بارزة من علامات التاريخ الثقافي المصري والعربي الحديث.
الشيخ علي الجرجاوي (رحمه الله) قَامَ برحلةٍ إلى اليابان العام 1906م لحُضُورِ مؤتمر الأديان بطوكيو، الذي دعا إليه الإمبراطور الياباني عُلَمَاءَ الأديان لعرض عقائد دينهم على الشعب الياباني، وقد أنفق على رحلته الشَّاقَّةِ من مَالِهِ الخاص، وكان رُكُوبُ البحر وسيلته؛ مِمَّا أتَاحَ لَهُ مُشَاهَدَةَ العَدِيدِ مِنَ المُدُنِ السَّاحِلِيَّةِ في أنحاء العالم، ويُعَدُّ أوَّلَ دَاعِيَةٍ للإسلام في بلاد اليابان في العصر الحديث.


 

 Part 7

اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn
مؤسس ومدير المنتدى
أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn


عدد المساهمات : 34933
العمر : 70

Part 7 Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: Part 7   Part 7 Emptyالأحد 05 يونيو 2022, 11:59 pm

Part 7 730
THE ENDS OF ISLAM
THE EDUCATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL
      It is only natural that all religions known to us, all philosophies and social Systems, should achieve certain ends for the happiness of mankind. Islam, to which we adhere and call all people to adopt, has the most exalted human aims.
 
    In the following three chapters we shall deal with these ends. The first will deal with the education of the individual, the second with social reform, the third with world peace.
 
    It is quite known to us that individuals are the units which build up their society. So the right education of the individual will inevitably lead to the building up of a healthy social order. And hence we find that Islam has given prime importance to the education of the individual. The emphasis laid on this point is indeed unprecedented in any other religion especially because of its comprehensive and detailed treatment.
 
     Man has a body and a soul. He has his inveterate natural instincts together with a mind which makes him different from animals. Islam, recognizing this, gives each its due share of satisfaction. The body is not to be exhausted or deprived of any satisfaction at the expense of the spirit or the mind. Islam tells us to satisfy our desires and instincts in a lawful manner and never to stifle them.
 
        Physical health, therefore, is a question of high importance in Islam. Man has to protect himself against diseases and to cure himself in case of illness. The sanctity of life is indeed stressed by Islam. In case of necessity one can preserve his life in any possible way, even by eating a dead animal, or having any alcoholic drink. Those whose physical health does not permit them to fast are allowed to eat and drink and so on.
 
   We are allowed also to enjoy the lawful pleasures of life, thus satisfying the desires of our souls. We have to be disciplined and nicely dressed but not to indulge in extravagance which tends to vulgarity.

On this point God sheds more light in the "Sura" of "AL `AARAF":  
  " O Children of Adam ! wear your beautiful apparel at every time and place of prayer: eat and drink: but waste not by excess for God loveth not the Wasters. Say: who hath forbidden the beautiful (gifts) of God, which He hath produced for His servants, and the things, clean and pure, (which He hath provided) for sustenance? Say: They are, in the life of His world, for those who believe (and) purely for them on them on the Day of  Judgement. Thus do we explain the Signs in detail for those who understand."

     God, moreover, reminds us of his favours, of the goods of the earth which we enjoy and which beautify our life and fill it with delight.

In the Sura of AL- NAHL, we have such verses as:  
   "And cattle He has created for you (men): from them Ye derive warmth, and numerous benefits, and of their (meat) ye eat. And ye have a sense of pride and beauty in them as ye drive them home in the evening, and as ye lead them forth to pasture in the morning. And they carry your heavy loads to lands that ye could not (otherwise) reach except with souls distressed for your  Master is indeed Most Kind, Most Merciful. And (He has created) horses, mules, and donkeys for you to ride and use for show, and He has created (other) things of which ye have no knowledge".

      And: "It is He who has made the sea subject, that ye may eat thereof flesh that is fresh and tender, and that ye may extract therefrom ornaments to wear; and thou seest the ships therein that plough the waves, that ye may seek (thus) of the bounty of God and that ye may be grateful."

        Islam in recognizing the human instincts and man's claim to satisfy them, does allow women to beautify themselves, wear silk dresses and jewels while forbidding men to beautify themselves at all since it is against the nature of man who is supposed to be dignified and respectable. Human beings are, however, basically different from animals since they possess certain mental powers which determine the human element in them. Islam, naturally, cares very much for the education of these mental powers which lead to human perfection.
 
     In the holy Quran, we find verses which indicate this end - such as "By the soul, and the proportion and order given to it; and its enlightenment as to its wrong and its right; truly he succeeds that purifies it, and he fails that corrupts it." The verses indicate, moreover, that God, wise as He is, endowed man with a perfect soul, and showed him right and wrong  leaving him to follow either of them he chooses but being held responsible at the end for his choice.
 
     God indicates also that the winners are only those who purify their souls through virtuous deeds, while the losers are those who cannot control their desires and so tend to evil.

     Islam, therefore, implied that man should curb his desires in order to have the heavenly reward of eternal paradise. In the Sura of "Al-Naziaat", the following verses point this out :" And for such as had entertained the fear of standing before their Lords' (tribunal) and had restrained (their) soul from lower Desires, their Abode will be the garden".

      The Prophet of God once said to some returning warriors: "Welcome You have finished with a minor warfare and launched into a major battle!" When asked about the nature of this battle he said " It is the fifth, against your soul's desires.

      On this point he said on another occasion:
"The true warrior for the cause of  God is he who can resist his own desires and obey God".

      Once man succeeds in subduing his desires his conflicting human faculties will attain a state of harmony and reconciliation. And, consequently, all virtues will be there, in his peace of mind and body. These virtues can be said to spring from four major virtues which are the essence of all good wisdom,courage, chastity, justice.1

     Through education morals can be improved. And hence emerges the great need for messengers, prophets and social reformers and we remember that the Prophet of God told us to "improve (our) morals". And so man must watch his behaviour and be careful not to deviate from the path of right and virtue. One must not be driven to extrems and therefore must punish himself if he is wrong or reward himself when right. This judgement of one's deeds is highly important since it reveals to man his attitude towards the lofty human ideals, and determines whether his psychological state will be happy or otherwise.

      Just as merchants keep their accounts and depend on their account books for their commercial success, man must keep a just account of his deeds and depend on that in his quest for happiness.

     In brief, Islam aims at the education of man's conscience that he may be righteous and distinguish good from evil, even though in the affairs of practical life he may not find a text or tradition for each particular case. He will act according to  the dictates of his own conscience regardless of whatever his society may think of him.

     In this respect it is reported that Wabisa Ibn Maabad said that he went to see the Prophet, who said to him "Have you come to ask about righteousness? Ibn Maabad said, "Yes."

    The Prophet of God then said to him "Righteousness is what is within your heart; evil is also what is within your heart, though others may advise you differently."

    When man enjoys that peace and quietude of conscience, righteousness will always accompany his deeds. He will be independent in all his actions, however filthy this society may be.

    The Prophet of God ordered us to be independent in thought and action saying, "Do not be 'yes men', nor blindly follow others in right and wrong. Be independent and always for right. If people do wrong do not follow, and if right you still are right."

    The holy Quran, being the chief reference book of Islam, throws light on human virtues and vices and is (more than all preceding divine scriptures) greatly concened with their analysis. The Quran guides man to the virtues proper to healthy conscience and accepted by the mind. We are made to hate vice through the Quranic analysis which shows that conscience and the mind of man are naturally against wrong.

It is quite adequate to cite the following holy verses:
(1) O ye who believe ! fulfil (all) obligations.

(2) Help ye one another in righteousness and piety, but help ye not one another in sin and rancour: fear God for God is strict in punishment.

(3) Say: " Come, I will rehearse what God hath (really) prohibited you from": join not anything as equal with Him; be good to your parents, kill not your children on a plea of want; We provide sustenance for you and for them; - come not nigh to shameful deeds, whether open or secret; take not life, which God hath made sacred, except, by way of justice and law: thus does He command you, that ye may learn wisdom.

(4) And come not nigh to the orphan's property, except to improve it, until he attains the age of full strength, give measure and weight with (full) justice; no burden do we place on any soul but that which it can bear; whenever ye speak, speak justly, even if a near relative is concerned; and fulfil the Covenant of God; thus does He command you, that ye may remember.

(5) God commands  justice, the doing of good and liberality to Kith and kin; and He forbids all shameful deeds; and injustice and rebellion: He instructs you, that ye may receive admonition.

(6) Fulfil the Covenant of God when ye have entered into it, and break not your oaths after ye have confirmed them; indeed you have made God your surety; for God Knoweth all that ye do.

(7) Thy Master hath decreed that ye worship none but Him, and that ye be kind to parents. Whether one or both of them attain old age in thy life, say not to them a word of contempt nor repel them, but address them in terms of honour.

(8) And, out of kindness, lower to them the Wing of humility, and say:" Master ! bestow on them thy Mercy even as they cherished me in childhood."

( 9) Your Master knoweth best what is in your hearts: if ye do deeds of righteousness, verily He is Most Forgiving to those who turn to Him again (in true penitence).

(10) And render to the kindred their due rights, as (also) to those in want, and to the wayfarer; but squander not (your) wealth in the manner of a spendthrift.

(11) Verily spendthrifts are brothers of the Evil Ones; and the Evil One is to his Lord (Himself) ungrateful.

(12) And even if thou hast to turn away from them in pursuit of the Mercy from thy Lord which thou dost expect, speak to them a word of easy kindness.

(13) Make not thy hand tied (like a niggard's) to thy neck, nor stretch it forth to its utmost reach, so that, thou become blameworthy and destitute.

(14) Verily thy Master does provide sustenance in abundance for whom He pleaseth, and He provideth in a just measure. For He does know and regard all His servants.

(15) Kill not your children for fear of want; We shall provide sustenance for them as well as for you. Verily the killing of them is a great sin.

(16) Nor come nigh to adultery: for it is a shameful (deed) and an evil, opening the road (to other evils).

(17) Nor take life, which God Has made sacred except for just cause. And if anyone is slain wrongfully, We have given his heir authority (to demand Qisas, or to forgive): but let him not exceed bounds in the matter of taking life; for he is helped (by the law).

(18) Come not nigh to the orphan's property except to improve it until he attains the age of full strength; and fulfil (every) engagement for (every) engagement will be enquired into (on the Day of Reckoning).

 (19) Give full measure when ye measure, and weigh with a balance that is straight: that is the most fitting and the most. advantageous in the final determination.

(2o) And pursue not that of which thou hast no knowledge, for every act of hearing, or of seeing, or of (feeling in) the heart will be enquired into (on the Day of Reckoning).

(21) Nor walk on the earth with insolence: for thou canst not rend the earth asunder, nor reach the mountains in height.

(22) Of all such things the evil is hateful in the sight of thy Lord.

(23) These are among the (precepts of) wisdom, which thy Master has revealed to thee. Take not, with God, an other object of worship, lest thou shouldst be thrown into Hell, blameworthy and rejected.

(24) When a (courteous) greeting is offered you, meet it with a greeting still more courteous.

(25) O ye who believe ! enter not houses other than your own, until ye have asked permission and saluted those in then : that is best for you, in order that ye may heed (what is seemly).

(26) If ye are asked to go back, go back: that makes for greater purity for yourselves; and God knows well all that ye do.

(27) "And swell not thy cheek (for pride) at man, nor walk in insolence through the earth; for God loveth not any arrogant boaster.

(28) And be moderate in thy pace, lower thy voice, for the harshest of sounds without doubt is the braying of the ass".

(29) O ye who believe! when you are told to make room in the assemblies, (spread out and) make room: (ample) room will God provide for you. And when ye are told to rise up, rise up: God will raise up, to (suitable) ranks (and degrees), those of you who believe and who have been granted (mystic) knowledge. And God is well-acquainted with all ye do.

(30) And if one of you deposits a thing on trust with another, let the trustee (faithfully) discharge his trust, and let him fear his Lord.

(31) God doth command you to render back your trusts to those to whom they are due, and when ye judge between man and man, that ye judge with justice.


(32) Nor can goodness and evil be equal. Repel (evil) with what is better; then will he between whom and thee was hatred become as it were thy friend and intimate.

(33) Hold to forgiveness; command what is right; but turn away from the ignorant.

(34) O ye who believe! stand out firmly for God, as witnesses to fair dealing, and let not the hatred of others to you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice. Be just: that is next to Piety; and fear God. For God is well-acquainted with all that ye do.

(35) O ye who believe! betray not the trust of God and the Apostle, nor misappropriate knowingly things entrusted to you.

     These are only some verses, quoted from many "Suras, but we still have hundreds of their like which order more to follow good in all its forms and to avoid evil in all its types.

    They deal, as is apparent, with the virtues of the individual and society, setting the basis of ideal raising and education of man There are, indeed, certain moral principles which, once adopted by man, would make an angel of him, coming as it were to lead people on the path of right and happiness in this our world and the next.

        It is true that all preceding heavenly scriptures have tackled this point, and all social and moral philosophies have been concerned with it,but, nevertheless, the Quran in dealing with it ,has been more profound and extensive. We will find so many traditions of the prophet which tell us about good and evil in the full sense of the terms.

      The only decisive factor which determines the human side in man is his mind. Man can only attain perfection through the proper use of its power. Islam, recognizing the right place of this human power, has guided man to the correct use of this faculty.

God, in the Holy Quran, referred in so many verses to the mind of man, to human reasoning and so forth:
       "Thus does  God make clear His signs to you; in order that ye may understand."

       ....in this, is a message of rememberance to men of understanding.

    "And We have sent down unto the (also) the Message; that thou mayest explain clearly to men what is sent for them, and that they may give thought."

    "Do they not travel through the land so that their hearts (and minds) may thus learn wisdom?"

       We find also so many verses which attack the blind imitation of the forefathers because in so doing one does not depend on his individual reasoning. One must seek evidence for any conviction handed over to him from the older generation.
 
Among these verses are:
(1) When it is said to them "Follow what God hath revealed" : they say: " Nay ! we shall follow the ways of our fathers" even though their fathers were void of wisdom and guidance!

(2) When it is said to them: "Come to what God bath revealed; come to the Apostle"; they say "Enough for us are the ways we found our fathers following." What! even though their fathers were void of knowledge and guidance?

(3) They said: "Hast thou come to us to turn us away from the ways we found our fathers following?

(4) Just in the same way, whenever We sent a Warner before thee to any people, the wealthy ones among them said " We found our fathers following a certain religion, and we will certainly follow in their footsteps ." He said: " What even if I brought you better guidance than which ye found your fathers following? They said: "For us, we deny that ye (prophets) are sent (on a mission at all).
 
      We find, as a further evidence for Islam's glorification of human reasoning, that all scholars, with very few exceptions, are of the opinion that once one finds a contradiction between an idea maintained by correct reasoning and any of the divine texts, the former should be accepted. We should then admit that we do not understand that given text (if it is really a divine text) that it is beyond our human understanding and that God's intention was not to be revealed to us. Or, if possible, we could interpret it, within the recognized laws of the language, so that it would conform to the idea reached by correct reasoning. What a glorification of mind Islam has paved the way for human understanding to work, and removed all possible obstacles that may hinder its work.
 
     It is only natural then that the dignity of man, through this glorification of reasoning, has acquired its right position. Between Man and God there are no intermediaries whatsoever, no saints or clergymen. People are all alike (none detested by God and none preferred but for piety, deeper understanding of the Holy Quran and the Sunna' of his prophet, higher scientific achievement beneficial to one's fellow humans and also because of the good deeds which set the example to be followed by others).
 
    We do not find, therefore, a religious authority to be ultimately obeyed. The prophet of God explicitly states that" You must not obey an order which makes you disobey God".

The first Calif ABU BAKR told his people:
     "You should obey me so long as I obey God; but if not  you are free to disobey me Islam, thus, has hewed down the religious authority of priests and clergymen. Islam does not recognize any religious authority among men. All practice of priesthood , known in old religions, has been rejected by Islam. The only remaining authority is the Holy Quran and the Sunna of God's prophet. Man has thus gained dignity, complete freedom of thought and action, and so is entirely responsible for what he does.



Part 7 2013_110


عدل سابقا من قبل أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn في الإثنين 06 يونيو 2022, 12:46 am عدل 1 مرات
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
https://almomenoon1.0wn0.com/
أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn
مؤسس ومدير المنتدى
أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn


عدد المساهمات : 34933
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Part 7 Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Part 7   Part 7 Emptyالإثنين 06 يونيو 2022, 12:11 am

SOCIAL REFORM
        The smallest social unit is the family. Society, in the widest sense, may comprise the whole world; but, still, the family is the first unit to be considered. Islam, for this reason, provided every possible guarantee which would secure happiness to this unit, and so secure the happiness of the whole society. This can be achieved only if every member of this unit knows his rights and duties and properly practises them.
 
     For this reason, God ordered us to marry. Islam, with all its traditions, forbids any man-woman relation unless practised in this lawful form. We can feel the importance of family life, and the need for it, if we merely understand this verse, in the sura of Rum:
    "And among His Signs is this, that He created for you mates from among yourselves, that ye may dwell in tranquility with them, and He has put love and mercy between your (hearts): verily in that are Signs for those who reflect".

       Marriage, therefore, is a bond which connects one soul to another.
A husband can find happiness and solace with his wife, is shares his actual life with him, cherishing his hopes and encouraging him to face life more sternly. And only thus can life be a paradise for both.

       To secure harmony between husband and wife, God has stated the rights and duties of each. The husband has to work outside the house to provide his family with the necessary requirements of life; while the wife is merely supposed to stay at home to look after her household affairs and bring up the children. A wife, therefore, will not be obliged to debase herself in an outside job. Children have to obey their parents and look after them later when they are old and in need of care.
 
    God, merciful and compassionate as He is, made it an inherent right of the parents to be looked after by their children. He states more than once the duties of children towards their parents and stresses the rights of the parents in the same verses where his worship is stated and the significance of this is quite apparent.
 
       One of these verses is that in Sura of Israa:  
     "Thy Lord hath decreed that ye worship but Him, and that ye be kind to parents whether one or both of them attain old age in thy life, say not to them a word of contempt, nor repel them, but address them in terms of honour. And, out of kindness, lower to them the wing of humility, and say: 'My Lord! bestow on them thy Mercy even as they cherished me in childhood."
 
      And another occurs in Sura of Loquman:
      "And We have enjoined on man (to be good) to his parents in travail; upon travail did his mother bear him, and in years twain was his weaning , (hear the command) Show gratitude to Me and to thy parents :to Me is (thy final) goal."
 
      A family is not merely composed of parents and children. The term includes all relatives such as grandfather, grandmother, uncles, aunts, brethren, cousins, nephews and so on. Hence, Islam ordered the rich in a given family to support their poor relatives so that no member of this small social unit would ever suffer and consequently no member of the whole society would be subject to the pains of poverty.
 
    It may be relevant to mention here that during my stay in France, I lived with a family whose maid-servant seemed to me to be of good family and did in fact arouse my curiosity. I, therefore, asked the lady of the house," Why should this lady debase herself in this way? Has she not any relative who can support her and put an end to her degrading job?, The answer was that the lady had an extremely rich uncle, but who still did not look after her. When I told her that the lady could sue him to get financial support, she was greatly surprised and told me that the law did not provide for this at all.
 
     When she knew that Islam states that such an uncle was legally obliged to support his poor relative, she commented that this blessing of Islam is really needed to put an end to the debasement of the fair sex in outdoor jobs. Were they to adopt Islam the lady, whosoever she was, would not go out and work for a penny that costs her a great deal in dignity and honour.
 
     Sometimes matrimonial life is threatened and the so-called connubial bliss is blown up. Will the husband and wife still go on without divorce? No, definitely. The law of Islam entitles them to divorce in case of the impossibility of reconciliation. Divorce, nevertheless, is considered by God to be the most odious lawful act, as has been reported by God's prophet. God advises us first to try a reconciliation, in such verses as in the Sura of "Nissa":
 
       "If ye fear a breach between them twain, appoint (two) arbiters, one from his family, and the other from hers; if they wish for peace, God will cause their reconciliation; for God hath full knowledge, and is acquainted with all things".

      If this attempt proves a failure, divorce becomes inevitable. It is for the good of both to separate, as stated by God in the same sura of Nissa:
      "But if they disagree (and must part), God will provide abundance for all from His all-reaching bounty."

    Out of all this, we can conclude that divorce, only lawful in Islam, is good for both husband and wife if their conjugal life proves bad. It, moreover, contributes more to the dignity of a wife to leave her husband in case of discord than to be still imposed upon him.

    The post-divorce conditions of husband and wife are perfectly treated in the Holy Quran. All the rules to be followed are wisely set, concerning the alimony of the divorced wife, her children and how they should be brought up and so on.

     If we go on to consider how Islam dealt with society in general in a given country or nation we still find rules which secure happiness, prosperity and well-being.
 
     Islam sets firm foundations for society; mercy, love and cooperation. Society also depends on equality of rights and duties, and the coordination of efforts for public and private good.



Part 7 2013_110
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Part 7   Part 7 Emptyالإثنين 06 يونيو 2022, 12:14 am

     It is adequate to reflect on this verse which comes in the Sura of Al Hugurat:
    "The Believers are but a single Brotherhood."
     In order to understand what is meant by a firm foundation let us also consider these traditions of the prophet "The true believers, in love and compassion, look like a living body; if any organ is sick, the rest of the body will suffer as well the pains of fever and insomnia", and "Do not let hatred, envy or conspiracy reign among you, but be true brethren and kinsmen "and " no one's belief is perfect until he is altruistic, wishing for others the good wished for him- self, and "have mercy on people on earth so that God may have mercy on you".

       This element of mercy, which must be engendered in the souls of the faithful by Islam, is not confined to human beings. It goes far more deeply to cover animals and so on. God's prophet said, "A woman was condemned to the infernal fires because she shut a cat in a room. She neither offered any food to it nor left it free to seek its own victuals".

      It is reported by Imam El Bukhary and Imam Muslem that the prophet of God once said, "A thirsty bedouin was on his way through the desert when he found a well and could get a mouthful of water to quench his thirst. Beside the well there was a cowering exhausted dog. It was apparent to the bedouin that the dog was also thirsty, so he endeavoured to get him some water and could at last quench his thrist too for so doing the dog thanked him and prayed to God for him, so that he was greatly rewarded by God and granted forgiveness". 


When asked, the prophet of God stated that man is to be rewarded for helping any living being.
 
       Since Islam urges man to be kind to animals, it is no wonder that man must be more kind and tolerant towards his fellow human beings, for the human race is all related to Adam, God peace be upon him, and is all created by God whose mercy covers all.
 
       We cannot in this essay discuss all the principles upon which society is based in Islam, or to deal with all the laws which secure its virtuous qualities and healthy atmosphere. We shall, therefore, confine our talk to three main points, still questionable in the West, and even a source of trouble which has had bad effects on world affairs, in general. These points are concerned with government, economy and guarding society against oppression in all its form.
 
(a) As for the first point we find that Islam states that government should be based on two principles: consultation and responsibility. A ruler is not to he despotic and nobody is allowed to shun responsibility even if it be the Caliph or the Imam himself.
 
      The Prophet of God, His peace be upon him, used, as universally known, to consult the wise and intelligent in all public affairs, in case there was no evidence in the Quran.

This consultation is urged by the holy Quran in many verses; in the Sura of Al-Emran:
  "And consult them in affairs (of moment)".
 
      And in the Sura of Shura, the faithful are described as "deciding their affairs by mutual consultation".
 
       A government based on these two principles must admit of no despotic tendencies whatever, and necessitates that people should obey the governors so long as they do not deviate from the path of good. It, moreover, and this is highly important, lays a responsibility on all people that they should guide their government in case of deviation from the right path and must rectify or, at least, attempt to rectify, any wrong committed by the rulers.
 
     Evidence in Islamic history, in its early days of laying the foundations and establishing rights and duties, are numerous. It is quite adequate for our purpose to cite the following instances. It is reported by Imam Ahmed Ibn Hanbal and others that the prophet of God said " Every Muslim must obey the orders of the ruler, whether to his liking or not, so long as the order concur withthe heavenly decrees. If the orders tend to contradict the laws of God he is not to obey."

In another tradition he says:
      "You have to obey your governor, even though he be an Ethiopian negro, so long as he follows the rules of Islam."

    The first Caliph, Abu Bakr, gave a speech on the day he was appointed, which started as follows: "My people, I have been chosen as Caliph though I am not the best person among you. If I prove good, help me. If I do anything wrong you have to correct it for me... Obey me so long as I obey God and the principle of his prophet; if not, you are free to disobey me."
 
    The second Caliph, Omar Ibn El Khattab said to his people:
"You should rectify whatever wrong I may fall into." A bedouin commented, saying, if you fall into wrong we shall rectify it using our swords." Omar thanked God, saying: "I should then thank God for having among the Muslims a man ready to rectify the wrongs of Omar, using his sword."
 
      Once government is based on these sound foundations, justice will prevail, which is the ultimate target of Islam. It is, as a matter of fact, an ideal principle of justice, never to be subject to any external influences such as justice against enemies, or being in favour of the relatives or in fear of authority.
   
In the Sura of Nissa, (verse 135) God says:
       "O ye who believe ! Stand out firmly for justice, as witnesses to God, even as against yoursrelves, or your parents, or your kin, and whether it be (against) rich or poor: for God can best protect both. Follow not the lusts (of your hearts), lest ye swerve."

And in the Su'ra of Maiida (verse 8):
     "O ye who believe! Stand out firmly for God, as witnesses to fair dealing, and let not the hatred of others for you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice. Be just: that is next to piety: and fear God. For God is well acquainted with all that ye do."

       In the first verse, we see a direct order to apply the principle of justice and equality among all, irrespective of any ulterior consideration, while in the second the point is developed through the addition that in considering the testimony of witnesses no preference should be given to any of them, and that only thus can justice prevail.

      The history of Islam is full of instances in which these principles were applied. This very principle of absolute justice led very many people who were pagan or who belonged to other religions to adopt Islam.

     (b) As for the second point dealing with the economy, we find that Western civilization, and even the lives of Western peoples themselves, are mainly based on economic foundations. They are actually materialistic since their main interests is merely to improve their economic conditions, considering money as the only decisive factor which determines the values of individuals and communities.
 
        This is indeed the reason for the eternal fight between Western peoples. They eat themselves up trying to get possession of economic resources, and hence their motivation in the past to practise a wide-range imperialism in the East and their endeavour at present to keep their colonies.

          They thus discarded all the exalted human values and supreme virtues which ought to rule human relations in all communities. They forgot all about the day of doom and resurrection, considering this life on earth to be the only life to be lived.

       Islam has an entirely different attitude from this. In fact, God created all the rich of this earth to let us enjoy them if obtained by righteous means.

      But it draws our attention to two things; first, that this life is not eternal. Second, that it is not every thing, it is merely a path leading to eternity in the next world. So we have to look forward to the everlasting bliss of paradise and be so good as to work hard for it.

      This point is well stressed in many verses of the Quran.We find, however, other verses which show that material prosperity and all sorts of profane pleasure may tend at times to sully the purity of one's soul.
 
    We find such verses as:
     "And know ye that your possessions and your progeny are but a trial;and that it is God with whom lies your highest reward?"

and:
      "Wealth and sons are allurements of the life of this world but the things that endure good deeds, are best in the sight of thy Lord, as rewards, and best as (the foundation for) hopes. " God, omniscient as He is, tells how poor and insignificant this present life is, compared with the eternal bliss of the next world.

This is best expressed, and indeed wonderfully illustrated, in these verses (in Sura of Hadid verse No. 20):  
     "Know ye (all), that the life of this world is but play and amusement, pomp and multiplying, (in rivalry) among yourselves, riches and children. Here is a similitude; how rain and the growth which it brings forth, delight (the hearts of) the tillers ! Soon it withers; thou wilt see it grow yellow; then it becomes dry and crumbles away. But in the Hereafter is a Penalty severe (for the devotees of wrong) And Forgiveness from God and (His) Good Pleasure (for the devotees of God). And what is the life of this world, but Goods and chattels of deception?"
 
     For once man believes firmly in this, and adheres strictly to this conviction he will no more indulge in races for money, and will immediately understand the role of money in oar life. Money is not an end in itself, but merely a means towards a loftier end, which is to make life happier of all human beings. It has a social function; and does perform an important part in our lives, and this is to create cooperation and understanding among men, and not merely to be a source of fighting and trouble.
 
       The Quran has also pointed out that man is not the sole owner of the earth and its treasures. God is the real owner, but he granted man its possession in order that he might live happily, helping his fellows and following the laws of God.

Man has to spend his money lawfully, paying to the poor their due share in his private property and so on:
      "Believe in God and His Apostle, and spend (in charity) out of the (substance) whereof He has made you heirs. For those of you who believe and spend (in charity), for them is a great Reward."

      The most important element in this question of social integration is to pay to the poor their due share in the property of the rich, i.e. the Zakat. This Zakat is not a sort of almsgiving in the degrading sense of this term. On the contrary, the Zakat is a definite sum of money legally exacted from all rich. It is a recognized right of the poor, as is stated in the Quran.

      The rich have also to help the poor by way of almsgiving and charitable work, as stated in Sura of Al Baqara (verse 177) but still the Zakat has to be paid regularly.

       The Prophet of God stresses the importance of the poor's claim to the property of the rich, for, as reported by Muslem and Abu Daoud, he says "Those who may have more horses and more food than they actually require must give some to those in need. He says also, "A true believer would never be content to see a neighbour of his suffer the pangs of hunger while he himself is satisfied.''
 
         Only through this financial system, can love prevail amongst people and social integration be maintained. Social balance can therefore be secured, which means equality of rights and duties and equal opportunities for all the work which secures dignity to all.
 
         The government and people are responsible for achieving this end.
 
(c) Islam, consequently, lays great emphasis on the principles of love and cooperation. These two fundamental rules must govern the actions of men however different they may be in race, colour or tongue. They must not fight each other or suffer oppression in any sense. Since all this seems to be wishful thinking, for man is not originally good, very strict legislation has to be set up in. order to guard society against oppression. And hence Islam dealt in detail with the cardinal sins and stated the sort of punishment to be imposed on him who stoops to any of these sins. These punishments are called "Al Hudood" (pl. of "Had", i.e. punishment). 2
 
These punishments secure the behaviour, mind and property of man, not to mention the remaining of strict penalties to be imposed on all criminals and sinners. We have, besides this, to know that Islam has also set preventive laws against vice and crime, This can be achieved through disseminating the principles of good and fighting wrong, in the full sense of these two terms, and this work constitutes a major basis of our religion.
 
        The Holy Quran has dealt extensively with this subject of good and bad, analysing the vicious propensities of man so that we may know what they lead to in this life and in the next world and so avoid the ways of wrong. We shall therefore speak briefly on some of these points.
 
      On the points of disseminating the principles of good and fighting wrong, God orders us to appoint certain persons among the Muslim people who are to devote themselves to carrying out this important task.

God says:
    "Let there arise out of you a band of people inviting to all that is good enjoining what is right."
 
     It is reported by Abu Daoud, El Termizy, and by El Nissaii, that the prophet of Allah said : "Those people who are aware of oppression but do not take serious measures to stop it, all will be punished soon by God".
 
    That oppression is wrong and so forbidden, that oppressors will be severely punished, especially in the next world, is greatly stressed by God in such verses as
        "No intimate friend nor intercessor will the wrong doers h!, who could be listened to".

        "The Prophet of God is reported by Muslim in his "Sahih" to have said: "God says: "My worshippers! Oppression is forbidden in Heaven as on earth. Do not do injustice to any of your human brethren".  

In another tradition God's Prophet says:
"An oppressor is given time and opportunity to prosper and then, once taken, he will be condemned to eternal punishment,"

and then he read the holy verse:
      "Such is the chastisement of thy Lord when He chastises communities in the midst of their wrong:grievous, in deed and severe is His chastisement."
 
     Society can only attain its ideal form if every member is absolutely honest in following his vocation and aware of his responsibility towards his fellow members. He has to keep this word, not to cheat anybody or to break a promise of any kind.

In all this God guides us, as we find apparent in these verses:
      "God does command you to render back your Trusts to those to whom they are due."

and, (at the beginning of the Sura of El Maiida):
         "O ye who believe! Fulfil (all) obligations."

and (in the Sura of Israa, verse 34):
       "And fulfil (every) engagement, for (every) engagment will be enquired into (on the Day of Reckoning)."
 
       The Prophet of God, God's peace be upon him, describes hypocrites as "those who are not honest, and always break their promise." He says elsewhere, " The treacherous are distinguished on the day of doom by a certain banner by which one can easily recognize a traitor."
 
        Cheating in trade is another instance of treachery and dishonesty. The Prophet, therefore, strictly forbids it. He was once passing through a market (as reported by Abu Huraira through Muslim), when he saw a person exposing some food (composed of dates) for sale. When he examined it he found that a part of it was wet and so rotten. He questioned the man as to the cause of this. Then he knew that rain had spoilt it, he ordered the man to expose the rotten part so the people could be sure about the real state of the food. "He who cheats us, does not belong to Islam," said the Prophet at length.
 
        Some may contend, out of ignorance or for the sake of argument, that civil laws are apt to secure social safety and guard society against oppression in all its forms, and so they ask: " what is the use of Islamic legislation ?" In so say ing, these people ignore, consciously or not, certain psychological facts which characterize the laws of God, and differentiate civil laws from heavenly legislation.

         A civil law, in any country, is a man-made law, and so fallible. It sometimes tends to oppression, since man does not have that comprehensive view of human life which would have made his laws applicable in all times and in all communities. Civil laws do not spring from the inner psychology of man. They are external laws and so limited in effect, and can easily be broken, once the individual is sure to avoid punishment.

       The laws of God, which are stated by Islam in a perfect form, conform to the natural propensities of man and so are fundamentally acceptable by the human race. God is, moreover, infallible. He entitles man to practise his inherent and inalienable rights, guiding him always to right and warning him against wrong.
 
       The law of God, in its comprehensiveness, is not confined to profane rewards or penalties. It links man on earth to his eternal life in the next world, and thus he is not cut off from the sources of spiritual power. Man, in obeying the law of God, is merely obeying the infallible law of his human nature and is made to feel the significance of his endeavour on earth since it will lead ultimately to eternal bliss in Heaven.



Part 7 2013_110
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
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أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn
مؤسس ومدير المنتدى
أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn


عدد المساهمات : 34933
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Part 7   Part 7 Emptyالإثنين 06 يونيو 2022, 12:23 am

WORLD PEACE
       Islam is not a religion of one people or merely of one age. It is a religion of all people at all times, a religion for all who seek right and believe in it. Evidence has been given from the Quran, that this is ultimately true. It is only natural, then, that Islam should be greatly concerned with world peace at all times.

This can be seen in the following:
     (a) We are not supposed to be enemies to the non- Muslim peoples merely because we are different in religion. On the contrary, we have to love them and make peace with them so long as they prove to be friendly. If, however, we are attacked, retaliation will be inevitable.

       In the Sura of Al Baqara (V.190) God says:
      "Fight in the Cause of God those who fight but do not transgress limits; for God loveth not transgressors."

And (in Verse 194, of the same Sura):
     "If, then, any one transgresses the prohibition against you, transgress ye, likewise against him. But fear God, and Know that God is with those who restrain themselves".

      In the Sura of El Mometahina (Verse God says:

"God forbids you not, with regard to those who fight you not for (your) Faith nor drive you out of your homes, from dealing kindly and justly with them, for God loveth those who are just. God only forbids you, with regard to those who fight you for (your) Faith, and drive you out of your homes, and support (other) in driving you out, from turning to them (for friendship and protection).It is such (as turn to them in these circumstances), that do wrong."

    (b) To love those who are different in religion and yet live among Muslims necessitates positive steps such as looking after the poor, and providing those who are unable to work with financial aid. Omar Ibn El Khattab stated that those who cannot pay the tribute must be exempted; that each must get from the government a regular payment sufficient to maintain himself and his family.

        This legislation arose from what happened one day during the rule of Omar. He encountered a blind beggar and was sorry for him. When he investigated his case he knew that he was an old Jew driven by extreme poverty to beg from people. He immediately ordered the person responsible for The Public Treasury to exempt the blind Jew from the tribute and to provide him with a monthly payment. He said to him "Look after the old man and act similarly in all like cases. In later life, every man has a claim to the public treasury just as he contributes to it in his youth".

     (c) Islam, moreover, orders us, for the sake of peaceful coexistence among the peoples of the whole world, to treat non-Muslims well, to forgive their wrongs and to be as human, in our behaviour, to them as we are to the holders of our own religion.

       It is adequate here to cite this holy verse (The Sura of Al Ankabute, Verse 46):
     "And dispute ye not with the People of the Book except with means better (than mere disputation), unless it be with those of them who inflict wrong (and injury); but say, We believe in the Revelation which has come down to us and in that which came down to you; Our God and your God is One, and it is to Him we bow (in Islam)"
 
      We have also to consider the holy order given to the Prophet of God, (in the Sura of Al Jathia verse 14):  
     "Tell those who believe, to forgive those who do rot look forward to the Days of God: it is for Him to recompense (for good or ill) each People according to what it what has earned."

         Al Bukhary in his Sahih tells us an incident which bears largely on this question:
    Gaber Ibn Abdullah said that once some Muslims were sitting with the Prophet when a funeral passed before them. He, immediately stood up and they followed  when told that it was a Jew who had died, the Prophet of Allah said "Is it not a human soul ? If you ever see a funeral, stand up".
 
       This brief phrase, though highly significant, "Is it not a human soul?" tells us very much about the principle of equality of all people regardless of their beliefs, race and so on. It is the toleration distinctive of Islam taken in its right form. It is true that some Muslims, on the long road of, history, were narrow-minded or fanatical, but still they were as far from the real spirit of Islam as some are nowadays.
 
    (d) World peace can be achieved if every country  keeps into word and fulfils its promises. Modern history, in whose turbulent current we live, validates this fact.
 
      It is, therefore, enough to point out that imperialism could only find its path to the East when the Great powers perjured their promises to the small countries. What makes anxiety the dominant mood of the world today is the breach of promises given by the international institutions, such as the league of Nations in the past and the United Nations Organization at present, to small countries. Because of this, we find that all the powerful are braggarts, and all, the weak are fettered, while the world as a whole is plighted with a feverish race for the multiplication of destinctive weapons.
 
         Islam, as we all know, is against  this mad race. To live in peace, love and cooperation is one lofty end of Islam's. It necessitates that promises, treaties and all kinds of agreements should be kept valid even in case of war between the Muslim people and-any other nation, and even if the breach of promise seems in the beginning to be in favour of the Muslims. To keep one's word, therefore, is the principal basis on which international relationships between the Muslims and non-Muslims depend.

      We aregoing now to review some of the Quran's contributions to this question, with a rather hasty glimpse at the early history of Islam, when these principles were strictly applied between the Muslims and other nations. The instructions of the Quran have made it clear that the love of peace is a real basis of the Islamic and Arabic society.
 
     In the Sura of AL Nahl (verses 91, 92) God says:
     "Lost one party should be more numerous than another".For it is for their own benefit that the countries of this modern world break their promises. Yet God strongly re commends us not to use this as a pretext for a breach of promise, because this destroys our moral integrity and spiritual principles.
 
    In the Sura of Tawba (verse 4) we find that God, in His infinite wisdom and omniscience, says that all disbelievers destined to terrible agonies in hell.

      "But the treaties are not dissolved with those pagans with whom ye have entered into alliance and who have not subsequently failed you in aught, nor aided anyone against you. So fulfil your engagements with them to the end of their term: for God loveth the righteous".
 
    For though the disbelievers were at war with the Prophet and the Muslims, we have to keep the promises we made to them so long as they keep them, and so long as they do not help other enemies to fight us.

      It is even more than that, for although Muslims are required to join forces against the enemy and deal blows as one body, we have to abstain from helping a group of Muslims in their war against a country of disbelievers with whom we may have had a sort of a peace-treaty, or a non-aggression agreement.
 
     This is explicitly stated by God in verse 72, Sura of Anfal:
     "Those who believed, and adopted exile, and fought for the Faith, with their property and their persons, in the cause of God, as well as those who gave (them) asylum and aid, - these are (all) friends and protectors, one of another. As to those who believed but came not into exile, ye owe no duty of potection to them until they come into exile; but if they seek your aid in religion, it is your duty to help them,except against a people with whom ye have a treaty of mutual alliance. And (remember) God seeth all that ye do.

      Only thus, have Islamic societies, following the instructions and injunctions of the Quran, achieved so many peaks in keeping their promises, hardly achieved by other societies past and present.

       History, as a matter of fact, provides us with very many cases when these principles were applied.

      Hozaifa Ibn Al Yamani tells us that he did not fight with the Muslims in the battle of Badr, because some of the disbelievers of the Quraish tribe caught him with a fellow of his on their way to the Prophet and he had made a promise with them not to fight them, and not to join the Muslim forces. When the Prophet of Allah knew of the promise he said " Do not fight, keep your promise, and God will help us".

      Before the signing of the Hudaibeya armistice, Sohail Ibn Amr was delegated by the disbelievers of the Quraish tribe to negotiate with the Prophet of God. While he was writing the text of the treaty which stipulated that any of the contracting parties was not allowed to receive as refugee a person belonging to the other, the son of Sohail called Abu Gandal came to the Prophet and announced himself as a Muslim. His father seized him firmly and told the Prophet that the treaty, though not yet signed, was valid and ought to be put into effect. The Prophet approved. It was inevitable to let the new Muslim return to his disbelieving community!



Part 7 2013_110
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
https://almomenoon1.0wn0.com/
أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn
مؤسس ومدير المنتدى
أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn


عدد المساهمات : 34933
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Part 7   Part 7 Emptyالإثنين 06 يونيو 2022, 12:25 am

It was the treaty though unsigned yet, and the holy verse:
       "But if they seek your aid in religion, it is your duty to help them except against a people with whom ye have a treaty of mutual alliance. Which necessitated that step."

          The successors of Muhammad, God's peace he upon him ,followed this ideal example. When the Persian chief called "Al Hurmozan" was captured after long fighting against the Muslim army, Omar Ibn El Khattab, the Caliph then, guaranteeing his security, asked him to confess everything .When he admitted all the atrocities committed against the Muslim captures Omar sentenced him to death. But, reminded that he had guaranteed his security, he set him free. Taken by the prodigality of Omar's toleration and the promise which had been kept, Al Hurmozan declared himself a Muslim, and so was granted his due share in the gains of the Muslim people. This exemplary behaviour was typical of Omar. In a letter of Saad Ibn Abi Wakkas, the leader of the Muslim troops in Persia, Omar says "If ever a sign is given by you to the enemy and considered by them to be a sign of peace, you have to take it as such and act accordingly".

         Another instance of Omar's ideal behaviour is that of the Persian Castle. The Muslim troops besieged a Persian castle and were about to seize it, when a slave warrior in the Muslim troops wrote to them guaranteeing their security. When the Muslim leader knew of this he refused to recognize that security. The Persians insisted that they had been lawfully granted a promise of security since they could not distinguish the slave from the free. A letter was sent to Omar, the Caliph, asking his counsel. His answer stated that "A Muslim slave has an authority to speak for his people an authority as valid as that of any other Muslim. The security granted to the persians must, therefore. be put into effect".

      It is reported elsewhere that a message was sent to Abu Obaida, the leader of the army, that, since God highly estimates fulfilment of one's promises, the Muslim troops have to withdraw and leave the Persians alone".
 
     In fulfilling the promise given by a slave, Omar was merely applying the tradition of the Prophet that, "All Muslims are equal, that the meanest can speak for them". An absolute equality is secured by Islam, regardless of any racial, colour or class differences.

     Omar wanted also to give us an example of an individual being responsible for his actions; for once he is aware that he represents the will of this nation be will be careful not to do wrong which would then blemish the whole community. Omar points out that what is significant to Islam is the application of lofty principles, not their outward form.

       What took place between the people of Samarakand and Omar Ibn Abdul Aziz, the far famed caliph, who was renowed for his absolute justice, is another instance of Islam's sanction of the principle of fulfilling promises given. They complained to him that Kotaiba Ibn Muslim, the leader of the army which had invaded Samarkand, had not been fair in the battles in which he had engaged with them because they said he had made use of treachery and vile conspiracies .The accusation was considered by Gomaia Ibn Hader, the chief judge then, and his verdict was twofold. It gave the army of Samarkand a new opportunity to fight a fair battle; if defeated they would have no right to complain. The alternative was an agreement which would satisfy the contending parties and put an end to their quarrel.

       Facing this unprecedented judgement;, the people of Samarkand preferred reconciliation and made peace with the Muslim.

Omar Ibn Abdul Aziz was motivated,in this step, by his love of justice and his abhorrence of treachery?  
    (e) In spite of all these guarantees against it, war sometimes becomes inevitable. Peace is not at times possible, for the security of Islamic progress may necessitate war, especially when we have to defend our independence against foreign aggression. The law of Islam tells us exactly what to do in order to reduce the evils of war to the minimum. There are certain rules which if followed, can make of war a good remedy for the evils of modern life.

      The early Muslim people inspired by the lofty ideals set by the Prophet of Islam, God's peace be upon him, were aware of this double nature of war. It can, therefore, be lawful when defensive.To defend Islam, national dignity, or the welfare of the country, one has to fight to the death; while it is strictly forbidden by the law of God to attack the peaceful, or to destroy the country of the enemy for the sole purpose of destroying it. This is, as a matter of fact, different from what the Jews are ordered to do by their old testament in its present form.

      Soliman Ibn Barida tells us that his father reported that the prophet of Allah used to advise his army before launching into battle to be pious, and used to say to them," Fight for the cause of God, in God's name. Kill the disbelievers in God. Do not massacre the enemy, do not betray them, nor kill the defenceless such a women and children .Do not mutilate the bodies of the dead".

      Nafei tells us that Abdullah Ibn Omar reported that when the Prophet of God found on the battle-field a woman slain by the Muslims, he ordered his men not to kill women and sent a messenger to Khalid Ibn El Walid, the leader of an army at that time, ordering him not to kill children workers or women.

     The Caliphs followed the example of the great Prophet. Abu Bakr Al Saddiq sent a message to Osama, the leader of the Muslim army fighting in Syria at that time, saying "Do not be treacherous; do not massacre; do not kill the old, women or children. Do not mutilate the bodies of the dead. Do not cut down palm trees or any other fruit bearing trees .Do not kill a sheep, a cow or a camel but for your food. You will pass by certain people who are devoted to their monastries (i.e. Monks); leave them in Peace.

      Omar Ibn Al Khattab did almost the same. In one of his letters he says:
"Do not massacre; do not betray, Neither kill children nor peasants`. He used always to order the leaders of Muslim armies; "Do not kill the old, women or children. Never attack any one of them even if they attack you in the battlefield".

      This is indeed the way of Islam How different is the way of modern civilization which prides itself on large-scale destruction of whole cities indeed, with thousands of children, women, and old men who are defenceless, helpless and cannot join the war what about the captives taken in war?
 
      What is the view of Islam in this respect? It is just good treatment on a lofty human level. For there is a choice between two solutions as regards the release of captives either they are to be released for nothing i.e. by merely setting them free; or; if possible,a ransom is to be paid for each capture.



Part 7 2013_110
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
https://almomenoon1.0wn0.com/
أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn
مؤسس ومدير المنتدى
أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn


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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Part 7   Part 7 Emptyالإثنين 06 يونيو 2022, 12:26 am

A holy verse states:
       "Therefore, when ye meet the Unbelievers (in fight), smite at their necks; at length when ye have thoroughly subdued them; bind a bond firmly (on them); thereafter (is the time for) either generosity of ransom: until the war lays down its burdens." Because of this, many scholars of Islamic law, and so many jurists (such as Ataa, Al Hasan and Ibn Omar) are not for killing captives. when asked about killing of captives, Ataa expressed his abhorrence of this and preferred either of the above mentioned solutions. Al Hasan stated that captives should be treated like those in the battle of Badr by the first Muslim army led by the Prophet of God Himself, i.e. either to be granted freedom, or to be exchanged for Muslim captives.
 
       Only in case of absolute necessity should a captive be killed e.g. if he commits a grave crime. But these cases, nevertheless ,are very rare; they constitute the exception which confirms the rule. For although the Prophet of God killed certain captives, he strongly advised us setting the example himself that captives should be very well treated.

        A striking example of this is that of Thomama Ibn Athal, when he was captured by the Muslims, the Prophet of God ordered that he should be treated well, and told his guard to offer him the best food possible. Milk was offered to him, morning and evening, from the  private she-camel of the Prophet. When the Prophet asked him to adopt Islam, he refused. He proposed to offer to the Prophet the required ransom to be set free. The Prophet exempted him from the ransom and set him free. Feeling how indulgent and tolerant, and how based on lofty principle Islam was. He declared himself a Muslim.

       How different was the treatment of captives in Europe during the second world warI witnessed myself in 1945 and the following years the kind of treatment France practised with German captives.
 
       The French used to treat their captives with the utmost humiliation known to man. They engaged them in the most degrading jobs and used to torture them and commit them to the cruellest forced labour on earth. It was considered as treachery to talk to a German captive as man speaks to man.
 
    In Germany of 1946 the same atrocities were committed by the Americans, and most probably by all occupiers of Germany.
 
    It is a major principle of Islam to live at peace with the people of the world and to fight to the death in case war becomes necessary.

There is a famous line of ancient Arabic poetry which expresses the same idea:
     "I do not hope for war, so long as I am not forced to fight, but once I engage the enemy in battle I fight to the death". It is reported also that the Prophet of God and his army had been waiting for the arrival of the troops of the enemy until nightfall, when the Prophet realized that the enemy had withdrawn. He therefore said to the Muslim soldiers "O people! Do not wish or hope to meet the enemy, and seek your safety. But if you once meet your enemies, fight to the death and remember- Under the shadows of your swords there is God's Paradise".
 
       In the Holy Quran, we find this verse (the Sura of Anfal verse 61):  
       "But if the enemy incline towards peace, do thou (also) incline towards peace, and trust in God for He is the One that heareth and knoweth (all things) For God does indeed order us to tend to be peaceful so long as the enemies are peaceful, but, nevertheless, we have to be certain that peace will not detract from the value of the lofty principles to which we adhere, that it shall injure neither our dignity nor our religion.
 
    (f) The effect of this policy, and the application of Islamic principles in case of war or in peace-time can be traced in very many cases.
 
     Very many people who belong to paganism or to non- Islamic countries chose, quite willingly, to adopt Islam when they saw how good and how lofty its principles were. They were driven to take that step by the good example which the Muslim people had given at all times and their good reputation. So many countries of non-Arabic races adopted Islam because of these principles and so the tide of Islam extended in the past to over a great part of the world map and to convert millions to Islam.

     This effect is also reflected in the writings of very many western thinkers who favoured Islam, and, moreover, in the writings of christian preachers who admitted the excellence of Islam as a religion of lofty ideals. 3

     We remember Michael the Great, (the jacobean patriarch of Antikia) who stated in the latter half of the 12th. century A. D . that Islam is the finger of God guiding the Muslim army on its way of conquest; that God has sent the grand sons of Ismail from the Arab peninsula to rid them of the Roman rule which put them under infinite agony.
 
      When the Muslim army approached the Jordan Valley, under the leadership of Abu Obaida, its Christian natives sent to him saying, "O Muslims. You are nearer to our hearts than the Romans, though they are Christians. You are more faithful, more indulgent, more kind, just in judgement and you are better, certainly, as governors".
 
        It is therefore quite easy to cite such testimonies in favour of Islam, and all from foreigners in religion and race. We are not here to cite so many, the only point we want to stress is how good are the principles of Islam and how lofty are its ideals. We merely, lack their right application to our life.



Part 7 2013_110
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
https://almomenoon1.0wn0.com/
أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn
مؤسس ومدير المنتدى
أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn


عدد المساهمات : 34933
العمر : 70

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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Part 7   Part 7 Emptyالإثنين 06 يونيو 2022, 12:29 am

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CONCLUSION
      Only, now, have we come to know what the world was like when adhering to religion, when Islam led it on the way of good and prosperity. We have also come to know the reason behind all modern evil, and the spirit of materialism which sweeps the world of today; it is the lack of adhesion to a lofty religious creed.

       We have also learned much about the value of Islam! that it determines the relations between man and God as it does the relation between man and man; that it applies to life in this world as it does to eternal life in Heaven; that it aims at the proper education of individuals and the call for world peace so that human societies can be governed by fraternity, love and cooperation for the public good.
       
We still know that God tells us in his Great Book:
      "Verily, never will God change the conditions of a peopIe until they change it themselves (with their own souls)".

And:
     "O ye who believe ! if ye will aid (the cause of) God, He will aid you, and plant your feet firmly".  which are laws of God, never subject to change.

     Because of all that, the United Arab Republic is burdened with a great responsibility, of the Islamic World, of exporting to the west the great belief of Islam in its correct form which comprises the firm ethical basis of our religion, its ideal human principles and the superb Islamic law.

    Our Republic has also to import the best achievements of the west in the fields of industry, thought and discoveries. We have to realize that no glory can be restored except through religion. We have to apply Islam strictly in all aspects of our life and to disseminate its principles among the free African countries, guiding them to the light of Islam, after long being misled and exploited by European colonization.

     We have, furthermore, to fight paganism and vice which squeeze their ways into the filthy atmosphere of cheap literature and the films which help create vicious inclinations in the hearts of men. We have to fight desperately these destructive means which undermine religion, morality, healthy traditions and lofty ideals.

      We have also to understand Islam correctly and convey our correct interpretation to other Islamic countries so that they may follow its principles with no deviation. As a general rule, we have to set the example ourselves so that others can see it alive in our daily life.

      May God Guide us to the right path of Islam. May God strengthen our moral integrity and support us with a divine spirit!



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منتديات إنما المؤمنون إخوة (2022 - 2010) The Believers Are Brothers :: (English) :: ISLAM AND HUMANITY'S NEED OF IT-
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