منتديات إنما المؤمنون إخوة (2021 - 2010) The Believers Are Brothers
هل تريد التفاعل مع هذه المساهمة؟ كل ما عليك هو إنشاء حساب جديد ببضع خطوات أو تسجيل الدخول للمتابعة.

منتديات إنما المؤمنون إخوة (2021 - 2010) The Believers Are Brothers

(إسلامي.. دعوي.. تربوي.. ثقافي.. اجتماعي.. إعلامي.. طبي.. رياضي.. أدبي.. علمي.. تاريخي)
 
الرئيسيةالأحداثالتسجيل

السادة أعضاء وزوارالمنتدى الأفاضل... أحيطكم علماً أنني قد بدأت تنسيق خطوط جميع مساهمات المنتدى والبالغ عددها أكثر من 33000 مساهمة منذ مدة.. وقد وصلتُ بتوفيق الله تعالى في التنسيق حتى منتدى:

فضائل الشُّهور والأيَّام.

قال الفيلسوف توماس كارليل في كتابه الأبطال عن رسول الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم-: "لقد أصبح من أكبر العار على أي فرد مُتمدين من أبناء هذا العصر؛ أن يُصْغِي إلى ما يظن من أنَّ دِينَ الإسلام كَذِبٌ، وأنَّ مُحَمَّداً -صلى الله عليه وسلم- خَدَّاعٌ مُزُوِّرٌ، وآنَ لنا أنْ نُحارب ما يُشَاعُ من مثل هذه الأقوال السَّخيفة المُخْجِلَةِ؛ فإنَّ الرِّسَالة التي أدَّاهَا ذلك الرَّسُولُ ما زالت السِّراج المُنير مُدَّةَ اثني عشر قرناً، لنحو مائتي مليون من الناس أمثالنا، خلقهم اللهُ الذي خلقنا، (وقت كتابة الفيلسوف توماس كارليل لهذا الكتاب)، إقرأ بقية كتاب الفيلسوف توماس كارليل عن سيدنا محمد -صلى الله عليه وسلم-، على هذا الرابط: محمد بن عبد الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم-.

يقول المستشرق الإسباني جان ليك في كتاب (العرب): "لا يمكن أن توصف حياة محمد بأحسن مما وصفها الله بقوله: (وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ إِلَّا رَحْمَةً لِّلْعَالَمِين) فكان محمدٌ رحمة حقيقية، وإني أصلي عليه بلهفة وشوق".
فَضَّلَ اللهُ مِصْرَ على سائر البُلدان، كما فَضَّلَ بعض الناس على بعض والأيام والليالي بعضها على بعض، والفضلُ على ضربين: في دِينٍ أو دُنْيَا، أو فيهما جميعاً، وقد فَضَّلَ اللهُ مِصْرَ وشَهِدَ لها في كتابهِ بالكَرَمِ وعِظَم المَنزلة وذَكَرَهَا باسمها وخَصَّهَا دُونَ غيرها، وكَرَّرَ ذِكْرَهَا، وأبَانَ فضلها في آياتٍ تُتْلَى من القرآن العظيم.
المهندس حسن فتحي فيلسوف العمارة ومهندس الفقراء: هو معماري مصري بارز، من مواليد مدينة الأسكندرية، وتخرَّجَ من المُهندس خانة بجامعة فؤاد الأول، اشْتُهِرَ بطرازهِ المعماري الفريد الذي استمَدَّ مَصَادِرَهُ مِنَ العِمَارَةِ الريفية النوبية المَبنية بالطوب اللبن، ومن البيوت والقصور بالقاهرة القديمة في العصرين المملوكي والعُثماني.
رُبَّ ضَارَّةٍ نَافِعَةٍ.. فوائدُ فيروس كورونا غير المتوقعة للبشرية أنَّه لم يكن يَخطرُ على بال أحَدِنَا منذ أن ظهر وباء فيروس كورونا المُستجد، أنْ يكونَ لهذه الجائحة فوائدُ وإيجابيات ملموسة أفادَت كوكب الأرض.. فكيف حدث ذلك؟!...
تخليص الإبريز في تلخيص باريز: هو الكتاب الذي ألّفَهُ الشيخ "رفاعة رافع الطهطاوي" رائد التنوير في العصر الحديث كما يُلَقَّب، ويُمَثِّلُ هذا الكتاب علامة بارزة من علامات التاريخ الثقافي المصري والعربي الحديث.
الشيخ علي الجرجاوي (رحمه الله) قَامَ برحلةٍ إلى اليابان العام 1906م لحُضُورِ مؤتمر الأديان بطوكيو، الذي دعا إليه الإمبراطور الياباني عُلَمَاءَ الأديان لعرض عقائد دينهم على الشعب الياباني، وقد أنفق على رحلته الشَّاقَّةِ من مَالِهِ الخاص، وكان رُكُوبُ البحر وسيلته؛ مِمَّا أتَاحَ لَهُ مُشَاهَدَةَ العَدِيدِ مِنَ المُدُنِ السَّاحِلِيَّةِ في أنحاء العالم، ويُعَدُّ أوَّلَ دَاعِيَةٍ للإسلام في بلاد اليابان في العصر الحديث.


 

  Chapter One: Islam, the Intellect, Knowledge & Work

اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn
مؤسس ومدير المنتدى
أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn

عدد المساهمات : 32718
العمر : 69

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مُساهمةموضوع: Chapter One: Islam, the Intellect, Knowledge & Work    Chapter One: Islam, the Intellect, Knowledge & Work Emptyالأربعاء 15 سبتمبر 2021, 7:09 am

 Chapter One: Islam, the Intellect, Knowledge & Work
Section One: The Role of the Intellect in Islam
Section Two: Islam & Science
Section Three: Work in Islam


Section One: The Role of the Intellect in Islam
Discussion regarding the intellect, its importance in Islam and its role in proving many aspects of faith has preceded in previous chapters. This section will provide further detail regarding the intellect and its role in Islam.

Firstly: What is meant by the intellect?
1. Defining the term ‘intellect’: It is a spiritual light which allows the soul to grasp self–evident as well as inferential knowledge.

This is the dictionary definition for intellect.(925)

Professor Dr Muhammad Na’im Yasin define intellect in the following terms: “It is a faculty of the soul which allows a person to perceive ideas and realities.”(926)

2. The point at which a person’s intellect develops: Al–Fayruz Badi said: “The intellect begins to develop when a person is in the foetal stage and reaches maturity upon adulthood.”(927)

3. The word ‘intellect’ can be used to denote knowledge in general. It can also be used more specifically in reference to knowledge of the good or bad aspects of things as well as their perfection or their deficiencies.

Similarly, it is used to refer to having knowledge of the lesser of two evils or the better of two goods. It may also be used to refer to the faculty by which a person discerns between good and evil, or to the capacity by which a person determines matters in their interest, or to the praiseworthy form of a person in their speech and gestures.

4. What constitutes an intellectual person? An intellectual person is one who has control over their affairs while restraining themselves from temptation.

5. Why was the intellect so named? In Arabic, the word intellect stems from the linguistic root ‘to restrain’. The intellect was so named because it restrains a person from perilous situations and prevents them from undesirable matters such as corrupt beliefs or wrongful acts.(928)

Secondly: The importance of the intellect in Islam
Islam gives the intellect much significance and attaches great importance to it by making it the fundamental criterion for legal responsibility and legal capacity. The Quran is filled with verses which command with rationality, contemplation and reflection and it praises those who do so. Equally, it reprimands those who do not make use of their intellect and instead choose to blindly follow their ancestors without having any proof or knowledge.(929)

Thirdly: The function of the intellect
The intellect is a light that Allah has placed in human beings so that they may discover things and find the truth. It allows a person to understand the message of Allah as revealed to Prophet Muhammad –peace be upon him–; to reflect on the creation of the heavens and the earth; to apprehend the mysteries of the universe; to contemplate on their own creation as well as the creation of other beings; to realize matters of creed within the limits of human ability, and to seek after their best interests in this world as well as the hereafter.(930) This, in short, is the function of the intellect.

Fourthly: The limits of the intellect
Even though Islam places great importance on the intellect and assigns it a significant role, it defines limits for the intellect which protect and preserve it from falling into ruin. The domain of the human intellect is perceptible matters, as opposed to matters of the unseen which it is unable to grasp, such as the essence of Allah, the soul, Paradise, Hellfire, the precise nature of Allah’s attributes and so on. Matters of the unseen such as these are inconceivable by the intellect which must adhere to the teachings of the religious texts regardless.

Fifthly: The role of the intellect regarding matters of creed
A person must not exclude their intellect altogether from matters of creed or other matters. However, it is impermissible that the intellect be used for a function other than its own as this will inevitably result in delusion and misbelief. Creed and true knowledge cannot be obtained by way of imagination and opinion.

Islamic creed is an immutable truth established by peremptory textual evidence and does not contradict sound reason as is stated in the well–known principle: ‘Sound intellect does not contradict clear, authentic Islamic texts.’

It is due to the intellect that a person has awareness of Allah and acknowledges that Muhammad is His Messenger. Therefore, if any contradiction were to occur between a person’s intellect and between the Quran or the Prophetic traditions which led them to reject any of the Quranic verses or Prophetic narrations, that is considered as contradicting what the intellect itself indicated to begin with.(931)

Sixthly: The intellect and religious texts
The famous, general principle states: ‘Sound intellect does not contradict clear, authentic Islamic texts.’ Sound intellect means reason devoid of doubts and desires, and clear, authentic Islamic texts refers to those which are free from defects and deficiencies.

There is a further principle to be employed in conjunction with the foregoing rule, which states: ‘In case of a contradiction between the intellect and Islamic texts, the latter must be given precedence.’(932)

Seventhly: Islam protects the intellect and safeguards it
Islam strictly prohibits the consumption of alcohol and narcotics, as well as everything which adversely affects a person’s intellect. Likewise, the religion of Islam protects the intellect and saves a person from falling into contradiction, confusion, misguidance and bewilderment. It is therefore an easy, simple, clear religion which is open to all people.

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(925) See: ‘al–Qamus al–Muhit’ of al–Fayruz Badi (p. 1336).

(926) See: ‘Mabahith fi al–‘Aql’ of Prof. Dr. Muhammad Na’im Yasin (p. 130). In Yasin mentions various definitions for the intellect but concludes by favouring the one mentioned above.

(927) ibid.

(928) See: ‘Lisan al–‘Arab’ (8/27) & ‘al–Qamus al–Muhit’ (p. 1336).

(929) See: ‘Mabahith fil–‘Aql’ (p. 223–4).

(930) ibid.

(931) See: ‘al–‘Aql wan–Naql ‘Inda Ibn Rushd’ of Dr. Muhammad Amaan (pp. 12–5).

(932) See: ‘Dar• Ta’arudh al–‘Aql wan–Naql’ of Ibn Taymiyyah (1/22–3, 78–81).



 Chapter One: Islam, the Intellect, Knowledge & Work 2013_110


عدل سابقا من قبل أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn في السبت 18 سبتمبر 2021, 4:29 pm عدل 1 مرات
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
https://almomenoon1.0wn0.com/
أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn
مؤسس ومدير المنتدى
أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn

عدد المساهمات : 32718
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Section Two: Islam & Science
Islam is a religion of knowledge and truth and it opposes ignorance and superstitions. The Quran and the Prophetic traditions are both reliable sources for scientific facts. The following paragraphs will aim to demonstrate the compatibility of scientific and religious knowledge.

Firstly: Islam considers seeking knowledge to be mandatory
Prophet Muhammad –peace be upon him– said: “Seeking knowledge is an obligation upon every Muslim.”(933) People undoubtedly differ in intelligence and thus certain aspects of knowledge are demanded of some people while others are exempted the acquisition of such knowledge. However, nobody is excused from learning the basics of their religion and the obligations which Allah has prescribed upon them.

Secondly: The first word of the Quran to be revealed was a command to learn
The very first word of the first chapter of the Quran to be revealed was Chapter 96. The Clot.

wherein Allah says:
(اقْرَأْ بِاسْمِ رَبِّكَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ)
Sura al–‘Alaq; (96):1
(Meaning: Read! In the Name of your Lord, Who has created all that exists.) This verse implies that the nation of Muhammad is knowledgeable and literate.(934)

Thirdly: Allah the Almighty praises knowledge and its people
Allah says:
(أَفَمَن يَعْلَمُ أَنَّمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِن رَّبِّكَ الْحَقُّ كَمَنْ هُوَ أَعْمَىٓ إِنَّمَا يَتَذَكَّرُ أُوْلُواْ الْأَلْبَابِ)
Sura ar–Ra’d; (13):19
(Meaning: Then is he who knows that which has been revealed unto you from your Lord is the truth like one who is blind? But it is only the men of understanding that pay heed.) Notice in this verse how Allah associates ignorance with blindness.

In another verse, Allah says:
(يَرْفَعِ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ مِنكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْعِلْمَ دَرَجَات)
Sura al–Mujadilah; (58):11
(Meaning: Allah will exalt in degree those of you who believe, and those who have been granted knowledge.)

Ibn ‘Abbas –may Allah be pleased with him and his father– said:
“The scholars surpass the ordinary believers by a hundred levels. Between every two levels is the distance of a hundred years.”(935)

It goes without saying that the knowledge being referred to in these examples is foremostly religious knowledge, however other types of beneficial knowledge are also intended by the wording of the narration. Beneficial knowledge is referred to in the Quran and the Prophetic traditions as being all knowledge that is productive and useful. Thus, any knowledge that improves action, facilitates the advancement of people and guides to the right path is considered beneficial, regardless of whether it pertains to the worldly life or to the life of the hereafter, for nobility in religion constitutes nobility in this life, and happiness in this life goes hand in hand with happiness in the hereafter.

Due to its perfection and comprehensiveness, Islam enjoins people to study all branches of beneficial knowledge, such as knowledge of monotheism, correct creed, jurisprudence and religious rulings, but also linguistics, social sciences, economics, politics, the art of war, medicine and other sciences which strengthen the Islamic nation and bring about social and personal reform.(936)

Fourthly: Islam is supported and confirmed by science
Science confirms the veracity of the Quran and the Prophetic traditions. Notwithstanding recent advancements in natural sciences, no genuine scientific fact opposes anything in the Quran or the authentic Prophetic traditions, even though Prophet Muhammad –peace be upon him–, –the one who informed us of such truths– was illiterate.(937)

Genuine science, therefore, does not contradict any of the authentic, Islamic texts. Rather it is in full conformity with them. It is not possible for any unambiguous Quranic verse to contradict reality in the slightest; if there appears to be a contradiction then either what is considered as a reality is merely a false presumption, or the Quran does not actually contradict the phenomenon in question. The irrefutable nature of both unambiguous Quranic verses and proven scientific facts makes it impossible for them to be contradictory.(938)

This principle has been established by scholars of old and modern times alike. Shaikh Al–Islam Ibn Taymiyyah –may Allah have mercy upon him– wrote his famous work entitled ‘The Rejection of the Conflict Between Reason and Revelation’ based on this principle. This rule is also acknowledged by many Western authors in their writings, such as Maurice Bucaille, the French doctor and author of ‘The Torah, the Gospel, the Quran and Science’. In his book, Bucaille finds that the falsified versions of the Torah and the Gospel which are available today contradict scientific facts whereas the Quran mentions many scientific truths well before the advent of modern science. He concludes that the Quran does not contradict scientific facts but instead is in perfect harmony with it.(939)

Fifthly: Perceptual, scientific and empirical evidence of the veracity of Islam

There is ample perceptual, scientific and empirical evidence of the veracity of Islam. Many facts which Islam affirmed long ago have been supported by recent scientific discoveries whereas previously they were considered debatable. Take, for example, the saying of the Prophet: “If a dog drinks from a vessel belonging to one of you, then let him wash it seven times, the first time with soil.”(940) Recent discoveries in the field of medicine have shown that the saliva of a dog contains numerous microbes and harmful diseases which cannot be treated by water alone and modern scientific research suggests that the most effective way of cleansing these impurities is with soil. It has also been found that it is possible to contract various diseases by sharing a vessel which a dog has used.

Dogs often carry parasites such as tapeworms whose eggs can transfer to humans if they drink from the same vessel or have any physical contact with an infected dog. If a human ingests these eggs and they hatch, the tapeworms attach themselves to the inner wall of the intestines and may even migrate to other vital organs such as the liver or the brain by burrowing through the intestinal walls. An infected human may suffer from migraines, vomiting, hair loss, seizures and partial paralysis. Tapeworms can also affect the heart by causing damage such as arrhythmias or, even, heart failure.(941) Because all breeds of dog are affected by tapeworms, dogs should be kept away from all food and drink intended for humans.(942) Hygiene and cleanliness will be further discussed in the following chapter.

Sixthly: Natural sciences corroborate the veracity of Islam
Natural sciences prove the truthfulness of Islam unbeknown to experts in such fields. For example, the recent discovery of fertilizing trees was mentioned in the Quran which was revealed to Prophet Muhammad –peace be upon him– over fourteen centuries ago.

Allah the Almighty says:
(وَأَرْسَلْنَا الرِّيَاحَ لَوَاقِحَ)
Sura al–Hijr; (15):22
(Meaning: We send the winds to fertilize.)

In another verse, Allah says:
(وَأَنۢبَتْنَا فِيهَا مِن كُلِّ زَوْجِۢ بَهِيج)
Sura Qaf; (50):7
(Meaning: And caused every kind of lovely plant to grow in it.)

Allah also says:
(وَمِن كُلِّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقْنَا زَوْجَيْنِ)
Sura adh–Dhariyat; (51):49
(Meaning: And of everything We have created pairs, that you may remember.)

Similarly, Allah says:
(سُبْحَانَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ الْأَزْوَاجَ كُلَّهَا)
Sura Ya–Sin; (36):36
(Meaning: Glory be to Him, Who has created all things in pairs.)

Allah, the Lord of the Worlds, mentions the gendered nature of plants long before the natural sciences taught us it.

Furthermore, some Europeans converted to Islam purely based on how convinced they were with the precise Quranic description of the sea, in spite of the fact Prophet Muhammad –peace be upon him– never embarked upon the sea.

One such verse is the saying of Allah the Almighty:
(أَوْ كَظُلُمَات فِي بَحْر لُّجِّيّ يَغْشَىاهُ مَوْجٞ مِّن فَوْقِهِ مَوْجٞ مِّن فَوْقِهِ سَحَابٞ ظُلُمَاتُۢ بَعْضُهَا فَوْقَ بَعْضٍ إِذَآ أَخْرَجَ يَدَهُۥ لَمْ يَكَدْ يَرَاهَا)
Sura an–Nur; (24):40
(Meaning: Or as darkness in a vast, deep sea covered by waves upon overwhelming waves, topped by clouds – darkness’s, one above another, such that if a person stretches out their hand, they could barely see it.)(943)

In addition to the foregoing few points, further examples demonstrating that Islam is a religion of knowledge will be provided in the following sections.

---------------------------------------------------

(933) Reported by Ibn Majah (no. 224).

(934) See: ‘Tafsir at–Tahrir wat–Tanwir’ (30/433–4).

(935) See: ‘Tadhkirat as–Sami’ wal–Mutakallim’ of Ibn Jama’ah (p. 27).

(936) See: ‘ad–Din as–Sahih Yahullu Jamee’ al–Mashakil’ of Shaikh Ibn Sa’di (p. 20); ‘ad–Dala•il al–Qur•aniyyah fi anna al–‘Ulum an–Nafi’ah Dakhilah fi ad–Din al–Islami’ of Shaikh Ibn Sa’di (p. 6) & ‘Wamadatu Fikr’ of Shaikh Muhammad at–Tahir bin ‘Ashur (p. 134).

(937) See: ‘al–Adillah wal–Qawati’ wal–Barahin’ of Shaikh ‘Abdur–Rahman bin Sa’di (p. 350).

(938) See: ‘Majmu’at Fatawa Fadilat ash–Shaikh Muhammad bin ‘Uthaymin’ (3/77).

(939) See: ‘at–Tawrat wal–Injil wal–Quran wal–‘Ilm’ of Maurice Bucaille, translated by Shaikh Hasan Khalid.

(940) Reported by Muslim (no. 279).

(941) See: ‘Taysir al–‘Allam Sharh ‘Umdat al–Ahkam’ of Shaikh ‘Abdullah al–Bassam (1/34) & ‘Ta’rif ‘Aam bi Din al–Islam al–Musamma Rasa•il as–Salam wa Rusul al–Islam’ of Shaikh Yusuf ad–Dajawi (pp. 38–9).

(942) See: ‘Tawdih al–Ahkam’ (1/137).

(943) See: ‘Ta’rif ‘Aam bi Din al–Islam’ (pp. 41–6).



 Chapter One: Islam, the Intellect, Knowledge & Work 2013_110


عدل سابقا من قبل أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn في السبت 18 سبتمبر 2021, 4:30 pm عدل 1 مرات
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https://almomenoon1.0wn0.com/
أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn
مؤسس ومدير المنتدى
أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn

عدد المساهمات : 32718
العمر : 69

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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Chapter One: Islam, the Intellect, Knowledge & Work    Chapter One: Islam, the Intellect, Knowledge & Work Emptyالأربعاء 15 سبتمبر 2021, 7:34 am

Section Three: Islam & Work
Introduction: The meaning of work and its importance in Islam
1. The importance of work in Islam
Islam is the religion of self–respect, dignity, excellence, aspiration and striving and is certainly not a religion of humiliation, degradation, laziness, inactivity or idleness. Work has a privileged status in Islam and is considered as a high civilizational value. Islam lays out a perfectly balanced methodology for work in which employers and employees rights are equally protected. It maintains the honour, dignity and rights of humans so that they can fulfil their role and be productive members of society in this life.

In Islamic civilisation, the world of work is given great importance by scholars who constantly assign rulings and regulations to new occurrences while considering the needs of employers and employees alike. The philosophy of work in Islam rests, above all, on the valorisation of employees and the promotion of professional trades as they are a noble means of earning a livelihood.(944) This will be elaborated further in the following paragraphs.

2. The meaning of work in Islam and other related terms
Here, the definitions of work and other related terms such as industry, trade and occupation will be provided.

i. The definition of work:
Work can be broadly defined as any lawful means of earning a livelihood and constitutes an effort is made by a worker in order to benefit themselves and/or others in return for a wage. The effort may be mental, manual, technical, or physical and may be exerted by an individual who is self–employed or by someone who is working in either the public or private sector.

ii. The definition of industry:
Industry is activity concerned with the production of physical goods, either for economic benefit or to serve a particular interest.

iii. The definition of trade:
Trade refers to any skilled action carried out by a person which requires specialist training.

iv. The definition of a profession:
A profession is a paid occupation from which a person derives their livelihood. It is said: ‘so and so exercises the profession of such and such’ or ‘so and so has learnt such and such a profession’.

All of these terms are directly related to employees and their livelihoods which come as a renumeration for services provided. Although the meanings of these terms may differ slightly in usage, they all refer to similar things and signify work in its broad sense.(945)

Having established the meaning and importance of work in Islam, the Islamic standpoint regarding work will be discussed in the following subsections.

Firstly: Islam encourages people with work
Islam explicitly encourages people to work throughout many verses of the Quran and in numerous Prophetic traditions.

Listed below are some examples of this.
1. The incentivisation of work in the Quran:
There are a multitude of Quranic verses which emphasise the lawfulness of work and highlight its essentiality and importance in various ways.

For example:
a. The incentive to work occurs in the Quran with wordings such as ‘walk in the path thereof’, ‘disperse within the land’, ‘travel on earth’ and ‘strive upon earth’ in search of lawful sustenance.

Allah the Almighty says:
(هُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الْأَرْضَ ذَلُولًا فَامْشُواْ فِي مَنَاكِبِهَا وَكُلُواْ مِن رِّزْقِهِ وَإِلَيْهِ النُّشُورُ)
Sura al–Mulk; (67):15
(Meaning: He it is, Who has made the earth subservient to you, so walk in the path thereof and eat of His provision, and to Him will be the Resurrection.)

He the Almighty also says:
(يَآأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ إِذَا نُودِيَ لِلصَّلَواةِ مِن يَوْمِ الْجُمُعَةِ فَاسْعَوْاْ إِلَى ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَذَرُواْ الْبَيْعَ ذَالِكُمْ خَيْرٞ لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ ٩ فَإِذَا قُضِيَتِ الصَّلَاةُ فَانتَشِرُواْ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَابْتَغُواْ مِن فَضْلِ اللَّهِ وَاذْكُرُواْ اللَّهَ كَثِيرًا لَّعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ)
Sura al–Jumu’ah; (62):9–10
(Meaning: O you who believe! When the call is proclaimed for the prayer on the day of Friday, come to the remembrance of Allah and leave off business, that is better for you if only you knew. Then when the prayer has been concluded, disperse within the land and seek from the bounty of Allah, and remember Allah often that you may succeed.)

Similarly, Allah says:
(وَلَقَدْ مَكَّنَّاكُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَجَعَلْنَا لَكُمْ فِيهَا مَعَايِشَ قَلِيلًا مَّا تَشْكُرُونَ)
Sura al–A’raf; (7):10
(Meaning: And We have certainly established you upon the earth and made for you therein ways of livelihood. Little are you grateful.)

Furthermore, Allah says:
(وَجَعَلْنَا النَّهَارَ مَعَاشًا)
Sura an–Naba•; (78):11
(Meaning: And We have made the daytime for earning a livelihood.)

b. The Quran elevates work and the pursuit of sustenance to the level of the greatest acts of worship by mentioning it alongside striving in His cause.
Allah the Almighty says:
(وَءَاخَرُونَ يَضْرِبُونَ فِي الْأَرْضِ يَبْتَغُونَ مِن فَضْلِ اللَّهِ وَءَاخَرُونَ يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ)
Sura al–Muzzammil; (73):20
(Meaning: And others traveling throughout the land seeking of the bounty of Allah and yet others fighting for the cause of Allah.)

c. The Quran praises manual labour and considers it a blessing requiring gratitude.
Allah the Exalted says:
(لِيَأْكُلُواْ مِن ثَمَرِهِ وَمَا عَمِلَتْهُ أَيْدِيهِمْ أَفَلَا يَشْكُرُونَ)
Sura Ya–Sin; (36):35
(Meaning: That they may eat of its produce and from that which their hands have earned. Will they not, then, be thankful.)

d. The Quran commends many of the industries essential to life.
Regarding metalwork, Allah the Almighty says:
(وَأَنزَلْنَا الْحَدِيدَ فِيهِ بَأْسٞ شَدِيدٞ وَمَنَافِعُ لِلنَّاسِ)
Sura al–Hadid; (57):25
(Meaning: And We sent down iron, wherein is great might and benefits for humanity.)

Allah mentions in reference to His favour upon David:
(وَأَلَنَّا لَهُ الْحَدِيدَ ١٠ أَنِ اعْمَلْ سَابِغَات وَقَدِّرْ فِي السَّرْدِ)
Sura Saba•; (34):10–11
(Meaning: And We made iron pliable for him, commanding him: “Make full coats of chainmail and calculate precisely the links.) Chainmail refers to a type of armour which Allah also says regarding:
(وَعَلَّمْنَاهُ صَنْعَةَ لَبُوس لَّكُمْ لِتُحْصِنَكُم مِّنۢ بَأْسِكُمْ فَهَلْ أَنتُمْ شَاكِرُونَ)
Sura al–Anbiya•; (21):80
(Meaning: And We taught him the fashioning of coats of armour to protect you from your enemy in battle. So, will you then be grateful?)

Regarding leatherworking, Allah says:
(وَجَعَلَ لَكُم مِّن جُلُودِ الْأَنْعَامِ بُيُوتًا تَسْتَخِفُّونَهَا يَوْمَ ظَعْنِكُمْ وَيَوْمَ إِقَامَتِكُمْ)
Sura an–Nahl; (16):80
(Meaning: And He made for you from the hides of cattle tents which you find lightweight when you travel and when you encamp.)

Regarding garment construction, Allah says:
(وَمِنْ أَصْوَافِهَا وَأَوْبَارِهَا وَأَشْعَارِهَآ أَثَاثًا وَمَتَاعًا إِلَى حِين)
Sura an–Nahl; (16):80
(Meaning: And from their wool, fur and hair is furnishing and enjoyment for a time.) i.e. from the wool, fur and hair of cattle.

Regarding construction, Allah the Almighty says:
(وَاللَّهُ جَعَلَ لَكُم مِّنۢ بُيُوتِكُمْ سَكَنًا)
Sura an–Nahl; (16):80
(Meaning: And Allah has made your homes a place of rest for you.)

Allah commanded Noah to build the ark by saying:
(وَاصْنَعِ الْفُلْكَ بِأَعْيُنِنَا وَوَحْيِنَا)
Sura Hud; (11):37
(Meaning: And construct the ship under Our observation and Our inspiration.)

Regarding architecture, Allah says:
(وَبَوَّأَكُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ تَتَّخِذُونَ مِن سُهُولِهَا قُصُورًا وَتَنْحِتُونَ الْجِبَالَ بُيُوتًاً)
Sura al–A’raf; (7):74
(Meaning: You build for yourselves palaces and castles in open plains, and in the mountains you carve out homes.)

When describing the elite believers, Allah says:
(رِجَالٞ لَّا تُلْهِيهِمْ تِجَارَةٞ وَلَا بَيْعٌ عَن ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَإِقَامِ الصَّلَاةِ)
Sura an–Nur; (24):37
(Meaning: Men whom neither commerce nor sale distracts from the remembrance of Allah and performance of prayer.) Allah did not say that they do not engage in business, but that business does not distract them from remembrance of Him or from fulfilment of the prayer.

The foregoing verses, as well as others, contain an incentive and an exhortation to work. They also establish the permissibility of adopting lawful means and of seeking an honest living through the various permissible lines of work.(946)

2. The incentivisation of work in the Prophetic traditions:
Prophet Muhammad –peace be upon him–, through his speech and action, encouraged people to work and corrected the pre–Islamic Arabs’ negative view of work. He  would exhort people and oppose the common incorrect practices of his time so that his companions would see him, follow his example and transmit it to other generations.

Furthermore, most of the collections of Prophetic traditions dedicate chapters to earning a living and manual labour. For example, Al–Bukhari and Ad–Darimi each dedicate a chapter of their books to ‘the earnings of a person and manual labour’. Similarly, Ibn Majah entitles chapters of his Sunan ‘Encouragement to earn a living’ and ‘Occupations’. There are many other examples where compilers of Prophetic traditions dedicate chapters to similar topics and list narrations exhorting Muslims to work and earn incomes through various types of work and trade.(947)

Aisha narrates that the companions of the Prophet  were instructed to bathe as they used to engage in manual labour and their sweat would smell.(948)

In another narration, the Prophet –peace be upon him– said:
“No form of earnings are better than that which a person earns with their own hands, and whatever a man spends on himself, his wife, his child and his servant, then it is charity.”(949) On many other occasions the Prophet  explained that physical work is from the best ways of earning a livelihood, such as the narration wherein he says: “The best wage a person can earn is that which they work for with their own hands, providing they are honest.”(950)

Prophet Muhammad –peace be upon him– would encourage and motivate his companions to work such as by reminding them of his work as a shepherd and informing them that all of the prophets worked themselves to avoid dependence on others. The prophets were craftsmen who earned their livings; Adam was a cultivator and a weaver, Enoch was a tailor, Noah and Zechariah were carpenters, Jacob was a farmer and Jonah, Jethro and Muhammad were all shepherds.(951) Prophet Muhammad –peace be upon him– affirmed that all of the prophets were shepherds at some point in their lives, and when his companions asked him in surprise: “Even you, O Messenger of Allah?!” he replied: “I also used to herd them for the people of Makkah in return for a few carats(952).”(953)

A look into the Prophetic biography reveals that Prophet Muhammad –peace be upon him– used to assist his wives in household chores such as mending and washing clothes, milking sheep, repairing sandals, cleaning, feeding his camel, serving himself, grinding grain with his wives, carrying shopping from the marketplace, slaughtering animals and the like. He performed these tasks out of modesty, but also to highlight the excellence of work and as an incentive for his companions and future generations to follow his example.(954)

The narrations which valorise work and encourage people to seek employment are very numerous, however the common theme they all share is their exhortation of people to work and earn honest livings. These Prophetic traditions had a profound impact on the companions of Allah’s Messenger and led them to take up professions which enabled them to earn livelihoods.(955)

Secondly: Islam forbids laziness, idleness and begging
In addition to incentivising people to work and mentioning its merits, Islam warns against inactivity, laziness, idleness, indolence, succumbing to poverty and begging. Anyone with the ability to work is required by Islamic law to make an effort to earn a living. This undoubtedly increases a Muslim in status and makes them honourable and self–respecting as opposed to being subjected to humiliation and shame. Islam advises Muslims to be self–reliant by seeking honest livings through work and labour, even if it entails a person travels in search of a livelihood.

Moreover, Islam teaches people that begging is lowly, and it commands them to abstain from asking of others except in cases of dire need. It informs them that the hand which gives is superior to the hand which receives and thus forbids anyone with the ability to work from relying upon others as it would constitute them being belittled in the sight of the giver.

The shameful nature of begging in Islam means that it does not compel a person to accept a gift of water for purification. Instead, it permits someone in such a situation to perform dry ablution in order to avoid the discomfort of having to rely on others. Similarly, Islamic legislation permits a person who does not possess garments which adequately cover them to pray and does not require they ask of others. Other rulings in this regard include the fact a gift is only validated if the beneficiary accepts it. A beneficiary may refuse a gift based on their dignity and out of fear of being constantly reminded by their benefactor of such a favour. Any self–respecting person does not resort to asking of others except in situations of absolute necessity. This is especially true if the donors they seek the aid of are ignoble or disreputable.(956)

It is for this reason the Prophet –peace be upon him– said:
“It is better for one of you to tie a bundle of firewood and carry it on their back and sell it than to lose face by begging from people who may or may not give.”(957)

He –peace be upon him– also said:
“Whatever wealth comes to you without you eagerly anticipating it or begging for it, then take it. However, you should not seek that which you are not given.”(958)

In another narration, Prophet Muhammad –peace be upon him– says:
“Whoever seeks to be self–sufficient, then Allah will grant them self–sufficiency; whoever abstains from asking others for financial aid, Allah will provide for them and save them from asking others; whoever tries to be patient, then Allah will grant them patience; and there is no blessing better or greater than patience.”(959)

On the same topic, Prophet Muhammad –peace be upon him– also said:
“Whoever begs from people in order to accumulate more riches is asking for embers, so let them ask for as much or as little as they want.”(960)

There also occurs a narration on the authority of Qabisah bin Mukhariq –may Allah be pleased with him– that he said:
“I came to ask Allah’s Messenger for help regarding a debt I took out a for the purpose of reconciling between some people. He said: ‘Wait until we receive the charity then I shall give you a portion of it.’ He then said to me: ‘Asking for money is not permissible except in three cases: A person who undertakes a financial responsibility for the purpose of reconciling between people may ask for help until the matter is settled, then he should refrain; a person whom a calamity has befallen which destroys their property and wealth may ask for help until they are able to maintain themselves; and a poverty–stricken person whose genuineness is confirmed by three responsible witnesses from their people may ask for help until they are able to maintain themselves. Aside from these three cases, O Qabisah, begging is impermissible and whoever engages in it is consuming such wealth unlawfully.”(961)

Prophet Muhammad –peace be upon him– even instructed some of his companions not to ask people for anything at all. Regarding this, there is a narration referenced in Sahih Muslim on the authority of ‘Awf bin Malik –may Allah be pleased with him– when he and a group of others gave the pledge of allegiance to the Prophet , he said to them: “Do not ask anything of people.”(962) Thereafter, they would not even ask anyone to pick up their whips if they dropped them whilst they were riding.

Thirdly: The Islamic rules governing work
Islam establishes rules regarding work and regulates the relationship between employers and employees by way of clear contracts which protect the rights of all parties. Moreover, Islam emphasises the obligations and responsibilities of employees which ensures their employers’ rights are not violated. In Islam, a person is free to choose whatever type of work they wish, provided it is permissible and of benefit to them and to society.

Some of the rules which govern work in Islam will be mentioned in passing below.(963)
1. The employment contract:
This contract is based on four pillars, namely: the employee, the employer, the contracted work and the employee’s wage.

It is also worth mentioning the main elements which a work contract must contain:
a. The nature of the contracted work:
This is an essential element for the validity of a contract as pay for an undetermined job is invalid.

b. The duration in which the contracted work is to be performed:
This is also a crucial part of any employment contract whose omission usually results in disagreement.

c. Remuneration should be clearly stated:
Payment is an Islamic right which provides people with an incentive to work. The payment amount should be clearly mentioned in all contracts of employment.(964)

2. The rights an employee is owed and their responsibilities:
a. An employee’s rights:
The main rights of an employee can be summarised as follows:
i. Remuneration:
All employees should be given their due after completing the work they were assigned.

ii. Respect:
Employees should be treated with honour and dignity and should not be overworked.

iii. Insurance against accidents at work and compensation for injury and damages:
In addition, regard must be given to the health, sustenance and accommodation of employees.

These rights granted to employees by Islam reassure workers and encourage them to be more productive.(965)

b. An employee’s responsibilities:
As well as granting rights to employees, Islam also imposes certain responsibilities upon them, such as:
i. Sincerity, loyalty and God–consciousness:
While it is obvious that employers have responsibilities towards their employees.

it is equally true that employees have duties towards their employers and are answerable to Allah Who says:
(إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْمُرُكُمْ أَن تُؤَدُّواْ الْأَمَانَاتِ إِلَىٓ أَهْلِهَا)
Sura an–Nisa•; (4):58
(Meaning: Indeed, Allah commands you to render trusts to whom they are due.)

Allah th Almighty also says:
(يَآأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَا تَخُونُواْ اللَّهَ وَالرَّسُولَ وَتَخُونُوٓاْ أَمَانَاتِكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ)
Sura al–Anfal; (8):27
(Meaning: O you who believe! Betray not Allah and His Messenger, nor betray knowingly your trusts.)

ii. Perfection:
Employees must do their best by completing work in accordance with what has been agreed and not be careless or negligent. Prophet Muhammad –peace be upon him– said: “Allah loves if one does a job, they perfect it.”(966) Perfection refers to giving due attention to work and feeling a sense of responsibility when performing it.

iii. Confidentiality regarding work:
An employee should keep any work–related secrets they have been entrusted with and not divulge them.

iv. An employee should be satisfied with the pay they agreed upon and should not steal from their employer, regardless of how much money their employer is making.(967) Prophet Muhammad –peace be upon him– said: “Anyone who is appointed a position and provided a wage that proceeds to take anything surplus to their pay is treacherous.”(968)

3. The forbiddance of performing impermissible work:
Islam encourages people to work so that they may lead dignified, honourable lives and thus, all forms of impermissible work are prohibited.

Allah the Almighty says:
(يَآأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ كُلُواْ مِن طَيِّبَاتِ مَا رَزَقْنَاكُمْ وَاشْكُرُواْ لِلَّهِ إِن كُنتُمْ إِيَّاهُ تَعْبُدُونَ)
Sura al–Baqarah; (2):172
(Meaning: O you who believe! Eat of the lawful things that We have provided you with, and be grateful to Allah, if it is indeed Him Whom you worship.)

This verse means that Muslims are not permitted to perform any work considered by the religion of Islam as sinful. Similarly, the Islamic legislation prohibits people from engaging in work that causes harm to themselves or to society.(969)

The foregoing has been an overview of work in Islam.

------------------------------------------------------

(944) See: ‘al–‘Amal ‘Inda al–Muslimin: Ru•yatunn Hadariyyah’ of Dr. Ibrahim al–Muzaini (p. 11–2).

(945) See: ‘al–‘Amal ‘Inda al–Muslimin: Ru•yatunn Hadariyyah’ (p. 25).

(946) See: ‘al–‘Amal ‘Inda al–Muslimin: Ru•yatunn Hadariyyah’ (p. 28–31).

(947) See: ‘al–‘Amal ‘Inda al–Muslimin: Ru•yatunn Hadariyyah’ (p. 32).

(948) Reported by al–Bukhari (no. 1965) and Muslim (no. 847).

(949) Reported by Ibn Majah (no. 2138).

(950) Reported by Ahmad in ‘al–Musnad’ (no. 8691).

(951) See: ‘al–‘Amal ‘Inda al–Muslimin: Ru•yatunn Hadariyyah’ (p. 34).

(952) A carat, or qirat (in Arabic) is a unit of weight equivalent to approximately 0.2 grams of gold.

(953) Reported by al–Bukhari (no. 2143).

(954) See: ‘al–‘Amal ‘Inda al–Muslimin: Ru•yatunn Hadariyyah’ (p. 38).

(955) See: ‘al–‘Amal ‘Inda al–Muslimin: Ru•yatunn Hadariyyah’ (p. 38).

(956) See: ‘Hayat al–Ummah’ of Shaikh Muhammad al–Khidr Husayn (p. 30) & ‘Rasa•il al–Islah’ (1/126).

(957) Reported by al–Bukhari (3/79) & Muslim (no. 1042).

(958) Reported by al–Bukhari (8/112) & Muslim (no. 1045).

(959) Reported by al–Bukhari (3/265) & Muslim (no. 1053).

(960) Reported by Muslim (no. 1041).

(961) Reported by Muslim (no. 1044).

(962) Reported by Muslim (no. 1043).

(963) See: ‘al–‘Amal ‘Indal–Muslimin’ (p. 81).

(964) See: ‘al–‘Amal fi al–Islam’ of ‘Izzuddin al–Khatib (pp. 62–3) & ‘al–‘Amal ‘Indal–Muslimin’ (pp. 85–6).

(965) See: ‘al–‘Amal ‘Indal–Muslimin’ (p. 87–93).

(966) Reported by al–Bayhaqi in ‘Shu’ab al–Iman’ (no. 4929); at–Tabarani in ‘al–Awsat’ (no. 897) & Abu Ya’la in his ‘Musnad’ (no. 4386).

(967) See: ‘al–‘Amal ‘Indal–Muslimin’ (pp. 94–5).

(968) Reported by Abu Dawud (no. 2943).

(969) This point has already been discussed under the chapter on the Islamic economic system.



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