منتديات إنما المؤمنون إخوة (2024 - 2010) The Believers Are Brothers

(إسلامي.. ثقافي.. اجتماعي.. إعلامي.. علمي.. تاريخي.. دعوي.. تربوي.. طبي.. رياضي.. أدبي..)
 
الرئيسيةالأحداثأحدث الصورالتسجيل
(وما من كاتب إلا سيبلى ** ويبقى الدهر ما كتبت يداه) (فلا تكتب بكفك غير شيء ** يسرك في القيامة أن تراه)

soon after IZHAR UL-HAQ (Truth Revealed) By: Rahmatullah Kairanvi
قال الفيلسوف توماس كارليل في كتابه الأبطال عن رسول الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم-: "لقد أصبح من أكبر العار على أي فرد مُتمدين من أبناء هذا العصر؛ أن يُصْغِي إلى ما يظن من أنَّ دِينَ الإسلام كَذِبٌ، وأنَّ مُحَمَّداً -صلى الله عليه وسلم- خَدَّاعٌ مُزُوِّرٌ، وآنَ لنا أنْ نُحارب ما يُشَاعُ من مثل هذه الأقوال السَّخيفة المُخْجِلَةِ؛ فإنَّ الرِّسَالة التي أدَّاهَا ذلك الرَّسُولُ ما زالت السِّراج المُنير مُدَّةَ اثني عشر قرناً، لنحو مائتي مليون من الناس أمثالنا، خلقهم اللهُ الذي خلقنا، (وقت كتابة الفيلسوف توماس كارليل لهذا الكتاب)، إقرأ بقية كتاب الفيلسوف توماس كارليل عن سيدنا محمد -صلى الله عليه وسلم-، على هذا الرابط: محمد بن عبد الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم-.

يقول المستشرق الإسباني جان ليك في كتاب (العرب): "لا يمكن أن توصف حياة محمد بأحسن مما وصفها الله بقوله: (وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ إِلَّا رَحْمَةً لِّلْعَالَمِين) فكان محمدٌ رحمة حقيقية، وإني أصلي عليه بلهفة وشوق".
فَضَّلَ اللهُ مِصْرَ على سائر البُلدان، كما فَضَّلَ بعض الناس على بعض والأيام والليالي بعضها على بعض، والفضلُ على ضربين: في دِينٍ أو دُنْيَا، أو فيهما جميعاً، وقد فَضَّلَ اللهُ مِصْرَ وشَهِدَ لها في كتابهِ بالكَرَمِ وعِظَم المَنزلة وذَكَرَهَا باسمها وخَصَّهَا دُونَ غيرها، وكَرَّرَ ذِكْرَهَا، وأبَانَ فضلها في آياتٍ تُتْلَى من القرآن العظيم.
(وما من كاتب إلا سيبلى ** ويبقى الدهر ما كتبت يداه) (فلا تكتب بكفك غير شيء ** يسرك في القيامة أن تراه)

المهندس حسن فتحي فيلسوف العمارة ومهندس الفقراء: هو معماري مصري بارز، من مواليد مدينة الأسكندرية، وتخرَّجَ من المُهندس خانة بجامعة فؤاد الأول، اشْتُهِرَ بطرازهِ المعماري الفريد الذي استمَدَّ مَصَادِرَهُ مِنَ العِمَارَةِ الريفية النوبية المَبنية بالطوب اللبن، ومن البيوت والقصور بالقاهرة القديمة في العصرين المملوكي والعُثماني.
رُبَّ ضَارَّةٍ نَافِعَةٍ.. فوائدُ فيروس كورونا غير المتوقعة للبشرية أنَّه لم يكن يَخطرُ على بال أحَدِنَا منذ أن ظهر وباء فيروس كورونا المُستجد، أنْ يكونَ لهذه الجائحة فوائدُ وإيجابيات ملموسة أفادَت كوكب الأرض.. فكيف حدث ذلك؟!...
تخليص الإبريز في تلخيص باريز: هو الكتاب الذي ألّفَهُ الشيخ "رفاعة رافع الطهطاوي" رائد التنوير في العصر الحديث كما يُلَقَّب، ويُمَثِّلُ هذا الكتاب علامة بارزة من علامات التاريخ الثقافي المصري والعربي الحديث.
الشيخ علي الجرجاوي (رحمه الله) قَامَ برحلةٍ إلى اليابان العام 1906م لحُضُورِ مؤتمر الأديان بطوكيو، الذي دعا إليه الإمبراطور الياباني عُلَمَاءَ الأديان لعرض عقائد دينهم على الشعب الياباني، وقد أنفق على رحلته الشَّاقَّةِ من مَالِهِ الخاص، وكان رُكُوبُ البحر وسيلته؛ مِمَّا أتَاحَ لَهُ مُشَاهَدَةَ العَدِيدِ مِنَ المُدُنِ السَّاحِلِيَّةِ في أنحاء العالم، ويُعَدُّ أوَّلَ دَاعِيَةٍ للإسلام في بلاد اليابان في العصر الحديث.


 

 Chapter Three: Belief in the Divine Books

اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn
مؤسس ومدير المنتدى
أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn


عدد المساهمات : 49808
العمر : 72

Chapter Three: Belief in the Divine Books Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: Chapter Three: Belief in the Divine Books   Chapter Three: Belief in the Divine Books Emptyالسبت 04 سبتمبر 2021, 5:59 pm

 Chapter Three: Belief in the Divine Books
Section One: The Meaning of Believing in the Divine Books and Various Related Matters
Section Two: A Comparison of the Similarities and Differences Between the Divine Books
Section Three: The Quran, the Torah, and the Gospel


Section One: The Meaning of Believing in the Divine Books and Various Related Matters
Firstly: Defining the term ‘Books’
The term ‘Books’ linguistically: is the plural of book; which means something written – in the same way that ‘spread’ appears in the Arabic language with the meaning: outspread.

In morphology, its basic root ‘kataba’ revolves around the meanings of collecting and joining. A book is so called due to it comprising a collection of letters that are joined together.

Another derivative is ‘katibah (battalion)’ –which was so called due to a faction of the army joining together. In the same way a tailor is called ‘katib (lit. gatherer)’– due to his gathering and joining together the edges of a garment.

This meaning is indicated by the saying of al-Hariri in his ‘Maqamat (The Assemblies of al-Hariri)’ wherein he mentions in the form of a riddle: And scribes whose hands never wrote a single letter * and who read nothing of what is written in books

The intent here is: tailors.[243]

As for the meaning of the word in a technical sense:
then the intent is: the Books that Allah the Almighty revealed to His Messengers; as a mercy to creation, and a guidance for them; so that they may attain bliss in this worldly life as well as in the Hereafter.[244]

Secondly: That which Believing in the Divine Books Comprises

1. To believe that they were truly revealed from Allah.
2. To believe in the names of those we have been informed regarding; such as the Quran that was revealed to Muhammad, the Torah that was revealed to Moses –peace be upon him–, and the Gospel that was revealed to Jesus –peace be upon him–, and the Psalms that were revealed to David –peace be upon him–.
As for the revealed books unknown to us, then we have a general belief regarding them.
3. We believe in that which is authentically established from news contained within them – such as news contained within the Quran, and news not distorted or altered that is found in the previously revealed books.
4. We act in accordance with that which has not been abrogated from them; we are pleased with it; and we submit to it– whether we comprehend the wisdom behind such or not –.

All of the previous revealed books have been abrogated by the Quran; just as Allah the Almighty said:
]وَأَنزَلنَآ إِلَيكَ لكِتَابَ بِالحَقِّ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَينَ يَدَيهِ مِنَ الكِتَابِ وَمُهَيمِنًا عَلَيهِ]
Sura al-Maa•idah; (5):48

Meaning: [And We have revealed to you –O Muhammad– the Book in truth; confirming that which preceded it of the Scripture and as a criterion over it.]

i.e. overruling it. Thus, it is not permissible to act upon any rulings mentioned in the previous revealed books except those which the Quran is in agreement with and attests to the correctness of.[245]

Thirdly: The Importance of Believing in the Divine Books
Believing in the revealed books is of great significance, which is demonstrated in the following points:
1. Believing in the revealed books is from the foundations of creed, and a pillar from the pillars of faith. A person’s faith cannot be correct unless he believes in the books revealed by Allah upon His messengers–peace be upon them–.

2. Allah the Mighty and Majestic praised the messengers that convey from Him His messages; as occurs in His saying:
]الَّذِينَ يُبَلِّغُونَ رِسَالَاتِ اللَّهِ وَيَخشَونَهُ وَلَا يَخشَونَ أَحَدًا إِلَّا اللَّهَ]
Sura al-Ahzab; (33):39
]Meaning: Those who convey the Messages of Allah and fear Him, and fear none but Allah.]

Just as He the Exalted informed that the Messenger (Peace be upon him)and the believers believe that what was revealed from scripture is from Allah.

He the Almighty says:
]ءَامَنَ الرَّسُولُ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيهِ مِن رَّبِّهِ وَالمُؤۡمِنُونَ كُلٌّ ءَامَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ]
Sura al-Baqarah; (2):285
]Meaning: The Messenger has believed in what was revealed to him from his Lord, and so have the believers. All of them have believed in Allah, His angels, His books, and His messengers.]

3. Allah commanded the believers to believe in that which He revealed in His saying:
]قُولُوٓاْ ءَامَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَينَا وَمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَىٰٓ إِبرَاهِ‍يمَ وَإِسمَاعِيلَ وَإِسحَاقَ وَيَعقُوبَ وَالأَسبَاطِ وَمَآ أُوتِيَ مُوسَىٰ وَعِيسَىٰ وَمَآ أُوتِيَ النَّبِيُّونَ مِن رَّبِّهِمۡ لَا نُفَرِّقُ بَينَ أَحَدٖ مِّنهُمۡ وَنَحنُ لَهُۥ مُسلِمُونَ]
Sura al-Baqarah; (2):136
]Meaning: Say: “We believe in Allah and that which has been sent down to us and that which has been sent down to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and to the twelve sons of Jacob; and that which has been given to Moses and Jesus; and that which has been given to the Prophets from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and to Him we have submitted.]

4. Allah destroyed the nations of the past due to their disbelieving in His messages; just as Allah informed regarding Saleh in His saying:
]فَتَوَلَّى عَنْهُمْ وَقَالَ يَا قَوْمِ لَقَدْ أَبْلَغْتُكُمْ رِسَالَةَ رَبِّي وَنَصَحْتُ لَكُمْ وَلَكِنْ لا تُحِبُّونَ النَّاصِحِينَ]
Sura al-A`raf; (7):79
]Meaning: Then he turned away from them and said: “O my people, I have certainly conveyed to you the message of my Lord and advised you, but you do not like advisors”.]

5. Whoever denies anything from that which Allah has revealed then he is a disbeliever – as He the Almighty says:
]وَمَن يَكفُرۡ بِاللَّهِ وَمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَاليَومِ الأٓخِرِ فَقَدۡ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًَا بَعِيدًا]
Sura an-Nisa•; (4):136
]Meaning: And whosoever disbelieves in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, and the Last Day, then indeed he has gone far astray.]

Fourthly: The Benefits of Believing in the Divine Books
Believing in the revealed books yields many great fruits; from them:
1. Knowledge of the care of Allah; and that is due to Him revealing a book to every people in order to guide them by way of it.

2. Knowledge of the wisdom of Allah; as He legislated for every people that which befits them and suits their circumstances.

3. Sufficiency in the revelation from the opinions of man – which may be correct or incorrect, just as they may be affected by absent-mindedness or one’s personal desires.

4. Traversing a clear, straight path that does not contain any crookedness or contradiction.

5. Rejoicing in such great good:
]قُلۡ بِفَضلِ اللَّهِ وَبِرَحمَتِهِ فَبِذَٰلِكَ فَليَفرَحُواْ هُوَ خَيرٌ مِّمَّا يَجمَعُونَ]
Sura Yunus; (10):58
]Meaning: Say: “In the Bounty of Allah, and in His Mercy; therein let them rejoice.” That is better than what they amass.]

6. Being thankful to Allah for this great blessing.

7. Safety from becoming confounded ideologically or theologically.[246]

Fifthly: Evidences Indicating Belief in the Divine Books
There is countless evidence from the Book and the Sunna indicating having belief in the divine books.

From the examples of such are His saying:
]يَأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ ءَامِنُواْ بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَالكِتَابِ الَّذِي نَزَّلَ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِ وَالكِتَابِ الَّذِيٓ أَنزَلَ مِن قَبلُ]
Sura an-Nisa•; (4):136
]Meaning: O you who have believed, believe in Allah and His Messenger and the Book that He sent down upon His Messenger and the Scripture which He sent down before.]

And His saying:
]وَقُلۡ ءَامَنتُ بِمَآ أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ مِن كِتَابٖ]
Sura Shura; (42):15
]Meaning: I believe in whatsoever Allah has sent down of the Book.]

Likewise the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said in the famous narration of Gabriel – when he questioned him regarding true faith - he replied: “That you truly believe in Allah, His angels, His Books, His Messengers, the Day of Judgment, and in predestination; its good and its evil.”[247]

Sixthly: The Purpose Behind Revelation of the Divine Books
All of the divine books were revealed for one purpose, and for a single goal, which is: that Allah alone is to be singled out in worship without any partners. They serve as guides for humans to follow in all aspects of their lives – directing them by way of what they contain to every good –; as well as being an inspiration and a light – bringing life to the souls, by removing them from darkness, and illuminating for them all of life’s avenues.[248]

Seventhly: That which Contradicts Belief in the Divine Books
From the things that contradict having belief in the divine books are: denial of them, disbelief in them, or distortion of them.

Objecting to the Quran, claiming its abrogation, judging by other than it, claiming its deficiency, attempting to contend with it, and opposing it likewise all contradict having true faith in the divine books.

-------------------------------------------------------

(243) ‘Maqamat al–Hariri’ (pp. 286). Also see: ‘Lisanul–Arab’ (1/698–703).

(244) ‘Rasaa•il fil `Aqidah’ (pp. 23).

(245) See: ‘Rasaa•il fil `Aqidah’ (pp. 23).

(246) See: ‘Rasaa•il fil `Aqidah’ (pp. 23).

(247) Reported by al–Bukhari (no. 50); & Muslim (no. 8).

(248) See: ‘ar–Rusul war–Risalat’ of Dr. `Umar al–Ashqar (pp. 235).



Chapter Three: Belief in the Divine Books 2013_110


عدل سابقا من قبل أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn في الجمعة 17 سبتمبر 2021, 6:58 am عدل 4 مرات
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
https://almomenoon1.0wn0.com/
أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn
مؤسس ومدير المنتدى
أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn


عدد المساهمات : 49808
العمر : 72

Chapter Three: Belief in the Divine Books Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Chapter Three: Belief in the Divine Books   Chapter Three: Belief in the Divine Books Emptyالسبت 04 سبتمبر 2021, 6:09 pm

Section Two: A Comparison of the Similarities and Differences Between the Divine Books
Part One: The Similarities Between the Divine Books
The divine books all agree in a number of areas:
1. Unity of their source:
Their source is one; as they are all revealed from Allah the Almighty.

2. Unity of their purpose:
All of the divine books have one objective; they all call to the worship of Allah alone without any partners, and to the religion of Islam, as Islam is the religion of all the Messengers. Thus, their goal is to call to the religion of Islam, and to the worship of Allah alone, without any partners.

3. Matters of creed:
All of the divine books contain a mention of having belief in the unseen, and those affairs related to creed – such as believing in the Messengers, resurrection of the dead, believing in the Last Day, and other than that.

Hence the affairs of creed are from the unabrogated pieces of news.[249]

4. General principles:
All of the divine books lay down general principles essential for mankind to be aware of; such as the concept of reward and punishment – i.e. that a person is accountable for his deeds, punishable for his crimes and sins, and unaccountable for the doings of others. In the same way, he is rewarded for his labour, and only possesses that which his own hands earnt.

Another example of such is:
the concept of purification of the souls. This is something we find encouraged and given importance to, along with a clarification that true success is not achieved except by purifying one’s soul with obedience to Allah, worshipping Him, and giving precedence to the Hereafter over the worldly life.

Another such principle is that those deserving inheritance of the earth are Allah’s pious servants, and the good end is for righteousness and its doers.

5. Justice and equity:
All of the Prophets –peace be upon them– came with the judgement of justice and equity.

6. Combating corruption and misguidance:
This is something all of the scriptures agree upon; whether the corruption is as it relates to creed or manners, straying from the natural disposition, transgressing against another human, being fraudulent in one’s dealings, or the like.

7. Calling to the perfection of fine character:
All of the divine books called to the perfection of fine character, such as pardoning the one in the wrong, having patience upon harm, speaking fine words, dutifulness to one’s parents, fulfilling covenants, maintaining the ties of kinship, honouring the guest, humbleness, being kind to the poor, and other than that from fine manners.

8. Many acts of worship:
Many of the acts of worship that we perform were known to the Messengers and their followers; such as prayer, Zakat, fasting, and Hajj.[250]

Part Two: The Differences Between the Divine Books
The divine books differ with regards to legislation; hence we find the legislation of Jesus is different to the legislation of Moses –peace be upon them– in some respects. In the same way, the legislation of Muhammad  is different in some respects to the legislations of Moses and Jesus –peace be upon them–.

Allah the Almighty says:
]لِكُلّٖ جَعَلنَا مِنكُمۡ شِرۡعَةٗ وَمِنهَاجًا]
Sura al-Maa•idah; (5):48
]Meaning: To each of you We prescribed a law and a methodology.]

This does not mean that the various legislations differ in totality; the one who compares will find they agree upon the fundamental matters –as aforementioned–. Thus, the differences between them are with regards to the subsidiary details.

In this way, we find the number of prayers, their units, conditions, the amount of Zakat, ritual sites, and other than that, may differ from one legislation to another. It is also possible that Allah may permit something in a particular legislation due to a wisdom and forbid the same matter in another legislation due to a wisdom He has knowledge of, and that we may not necessarily comprehend.

Some examples of this are:
1. Fasting: In the previous nations a fasting person would break his fast at sunset – after which it was permissible for them to eat, drink, and engage in sexual relations – until the onset of dawn, provided they did not sleep. If they slept before dawn, then all of the aforementioned became prohibited for them until sunset the following day. Allah lightened such hardship upon this nation (Islam) by making these acts permissible for the Muhammadan nation from sunset until sunrise, regardless of whether they sleep or not.

He the Almighty said:
]أُحِلَّ لَكُمۡ لَيلَةَ الصِّيَامِ الرَّفَثُ إِلَىٰ نِسَآئِكُمۡۚ هُنَّ لِبَاسٞ لَّكُمۡ وَأَنتُمۡ لِبَاسٞ لَّهُنَّ عَلِمَ اللَّهُ أَنَّكُمۡ كُنتُمۡ تَختَانُونَ أَنفُسَكُمۡ فَتَابَ عَلَيكُمۡ وَعَفَا عَنكُمۡ فَالآنَ بَاشِرُوهُنَّ وَابتَغُواْ مَا كَتَبَ اللَّهُ لَكُمۡۚ وَكُلُواْ وَاشرَبُواْ حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ الخَيطُ الأَبيَضُ مِنَ الخَيطِ الأَسوَدِ مِنَ الفَجرِ]
Sura al-Baqarah; (2):187
]Meaning: It has been made permissible for you the night preceding fasting to go to your wives for sexual relations. They are clothing for you and you are clothing for them. Allah knows that you used to deceive yourselves, so He accepted your repentance and forgave you. So now, have relations with them and seek that which Allah has decreed for you. And eat and drink until the white thread of dawn becomes distinct to you from the black thread of night.]

2. Covering the intimate parts of the body when bathing:
This was not something binding upon the Children of Israel; as occurs in the narration reported by al-Bukhari and Muslim: “The Israelites used to bathe naked, and they would look at the private parts of one another. Moses, however, used to bathe alone.”[251]

3. The forbidden matters:
Allah allowed Adam to unite his sons and daughters in wedlock, however thereafter He forbade such.

Similarly, concubinage was permitted in Abraham’s legislation, with Abraham himself having Hajar as a concubine alongside Sara.

Allah then forbade such upon the Children of Israel in the Torah.

Likewise marrying two sisters was something permissible, as Jacob did when he married the two daughters of his maternal uncle: Layyaa, and Raaheel – who were sisters. Afterwards Allah forbade such a practice in the Torah.

Another matter which Allah forbade upon the Jews is mentioned in Sura al-An`am (Chapter of the Cattle), wherein He the Almighty said:
]وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ هَادُوا حَرَّمْنَا كُلَّ ذِي ظُفُرٍ وَمِنَ الْبَقَرِ وَالْغَنَمِ حَرَّمْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ شُحُومَهُمَا إِلاَّ مَا حَمَلَتْ ظُهُورُهُمَا أَوِ الْحَوَايَا أَوْ مَا اخْتَلَطَ بِعَظْمٍ ذَلِكَ جَزَيْنَاهُمْ بِبَغْيِهِمْ وَإِنَّا لَصَادِقُونَ]
Sura al-An`am; (6):146
]Meaning: And to those who are Jews We prohibited every animal of uncloven hoof; and of the cattle and the sheep We prohibited upon them their fat, except what adheres to their backs or the entrails or what is joined with bone. By that We repaid them for their injustice. And indeed, We are truthful.]

Then Jesus –peace be upon him– permitted for the Children of Israel some of that which had been prohibited upon them.

The final legislation came, laying down the principle of: permissibility of all good things and prohibition of all evil things.

From the distinguishing features of the final legislation is that it is comprehensive of all of mankind until the Hour is established; contrary to the other legislations – as they were specific to certain peoples or eras.[252]

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(249) See: ‘Da`wat at–Tawhid’ (pp. 199–202; 218–220).

(250) See: ‘ar–Rusul war–Risalat’ (pp. 235–249).

(251) Reported by al–Bukhari (no. 278); & Muslim (no. 339).

(252) See: ‘ar–Rusul war–Risalat’ (pp. 250).



Chapter Three: Belief in the Divine Books 2013_110


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أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn


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Chapter Three: Belief in the Divine Books Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Chapter Three: Belief in the Divine Books   Chapter Three: Belief in the Divine Books Emptyالسبت 04 سبتمبر 2021, 7:20 pm

Section Three: The Quran, the Torah, and the Gospel
The Quran, the Torah, and the Gospel are the greatest of the divine books.

Firstly: The Noble Quran
The Quran is the last of the divine books and their seal. It is also the longest and most comprehensive of them, as well as being a criterion over them.

A mention of the Noble Quran has preceded under discussion of the topic ‘the sources of Islamic legislation’.

Further detail will follow when discussing the miraculous nature of the Quran in part eight, entitled: ‘Proof Indicating Islam is the Truth’.

Secondly: The Torah
1. Meaning of the word ‘Torah’:
‘Torah’ is a Hebraic word meaning legislation, law, or guidance.[253]

The Torah –in its original form, and according to the Muslims– is the name of the book revealed to Moses, peace be upon him.

The Torah is a tremendous book comprising light and guidance; just as Allah the Almighty said:
]إِنَّآ أَنزَلنَا التَّوراةَ فِيهَا هُدٗى وَنُورٞۚ يَحكُمُ بِهَا النَّبِيُّونَ الَّذِينَ أَسلَمُواْ لِلَّذِينَ هَادُواْ وَالرَّبَّانِيُّونَ وَالأَحبَارُ بِمَا استُحفِظُواْ مِن كِتَابِ اللَّهِ]
Sura al-Maa•idah; (5):44
]Meaning: Indeed, We sent down the Torah, in which was guidance and light. The prophets who submitted to Allah judged by it for the Jews, as did the rabbis and scholars by that with which they were entrusted of the Scripture of Allah.]

And He the Almighty said:
]ثُمَّ ءَاتَينَا مُوسَى الكِتَابَ تَمَامًا عَلَى الَّذِيٓ أَحسَنَ وَتَفصِيلًا لِّكُلِّ شَيۡءٖ وَهُدٗى وَرَحمَةٗ لَّعَلَّهُم بِلِقَآءِ رَبِّهِمۡ يُؤمِنُونَ]
Sura al-An`am; (6):154
]Meaning: Then We gave Moses the Scripture, making complete Our favour upon those who do right, and as a detailed explanation of all things and as a guidance and a mercy that they might believe in the meeting with their Lord.]

In many places in the Quran, Allah the Mighty and Majestic couples between the Quran and the Torah; due to the fact they are the best two books to be revealed to creation.

In short, this is the reality of the Torah that was revealed to Moses –peace be upon him–.[254]

2. The Torah present today:
As for the Torah we have today, and according to the Jews, it is a term indicative of the legislation that the Jews believe Moses –peace be upon him– wrote with his own hand.

They call it:
‘Pentateuch’, from the Greek word: ‘penta’ – meaning: the five books.
These books are:
The First: The Book of Genesis:
This book discusses the creation of the universe, the appearance of humans, the deluge of Noah, and the time period between the birth of Abraham until the death of Joseph –peace be upon them–.

The Second: The Book of Exodus:
It contains a discussion of the life of the Israelites in Egypt –from the death of Joseph until their departure from Egypt to the land of Canaan accompanied by Moses and Joshua– and that which occurred to them after their departure.

The Third: The Book of Leviticus:
‘Leviticus’ is an ascription to Levi the son of Jacob. In this book, from the topics discussed are purity, uncleanliness, sacrifice and ritual, vows, and veneration of Aaron and his sons.

The Fourth: The Book of Numbers:
A census starting from the time of Jacob is taken; recording the tribes, tribespeople, and sumpters of the Israelites.

The Fifth: The Book of Deuteronomy:

i.e. a repetition of the legislation, and a further reiteration of commands and prohibitions pertaining to them.

This book concludes with the death of Moses –peace be upon him–.[255]

The Christians use the term Torah to refer to all the books of the Old Testament.[256]

In addition to the foregoing books, there are thirty-four additional books in the Protestant version of the Bible – bringing the total number of books including the Torah to thirty-nine. Christians call this the Old Testament, which can be categorized as follows:

Firstly:
The five books ascribed to Moses –peace be upon him–.

Secondly:
The thirteen Historical Books: 1. Joshua. 2. Judges. 3. Ruth. 4. Samuel I. 5. Samuel II. 6. Kings I. 7. Kings II. 8. Chronicles I. 9. Chronicles II. 10. Ezra. 11. Nehemiah. 12. Esther. 13. Jonah (Jonas) –peace be upon him–.

These books contain a history of the Israelites after Moses –peace be upon him– until their return to Palestine after Babylonian captivity, and their restoration of the temple after its destruction.

Chronicles I and II however, are a repetition of the story of the Israelites – starting with a summary of the birth of Adam through to the first year of King Cyrus’ reign.

Similarly, the book of Jonah (Jonas –peace be upon him–) mentions his story with the people of Nineveh[257], to whom he was sent.

Thirdly: The fifteen Prophetic Books:
1. Isaiah. 2. Jeremiah. 3. Ezekiel. 4. Daniel 5. Hosea. 6. Joel. 7. Amos. 8. Obadiah. 9. Micah. 10. Nahum. 11. Habakkuk. 12. Zephaniah. 13. Haggai. 14. Zechariah. 15. Malachi.[258]

These books compose mostly of visions, prophecies of what will become of the Israelites, the people’s relationship with them, warnings of the consequences of what would happen to the Israelites, and a promise of their victory and return.

These books are ascribed to those present at the time of Babylonian captivity onwards.

Fourthly: The five Books of Wisdom and Poetry (Books of Literature): 1. Job. 2. Proverbs. 3. Ecclesiastes. 4. Song of Songs. 5. Lamentations.

Fifthly: The Book of Praises and Hymns is another name for the Book of Psalms, which is ascribed to David –peace be upon him–.[259]

These are the Books of the Hebraic copy of the Bible as recognised by Jews and Protestant Christians.

As for Catholic and Orthodox Christians, then they rely upon the Greek version of the Bible – which contains an additional seven books in comparison to its Hebraic counterpart. They are the Books of Tobit, Judith, Wisdom, Sirach, Baruch, and Maccabees I & II.[260]

3. The Talmud:
One of the central religious texts of Judaism. It means: ‘learning Judaism and its orders’.

The Talmud has two components:
(a). Text: which is called ‘Mishnah’ meaning: ‘learning’ or ‘redaction’. (b). Analysis & Commentary: which is called ‘Gemara’ meaning: ‘completion’.

The Talmud is the comprehensive written version of the Jewish oral law that Pharisee rabbis relayed to one another in secret, generation after generation.

Then, in the first and second centuries Anno Domini –due to their fear of it becoming lost– they recorded it, calling it ‘Mishnah’. This was then explained, the analysis being termed ‘Gemara’.

These analyses were written over a long period of time, stretching from the second century until the end of the sixth century Anno Domini.

Additions were made by Babylonian and Palestinian rabbis, after which the text –Mishnah– along with its analysis –Gemara– was named collectively: ‘The Talmud’.

The version with the analysis and notes of Babylonian rabbis was called: ‘The Babylonian Talmud’; whereas the version accompanied by the analysis of the Palestinian rabbis was called: ‘The Palestinian Talmud’.

The Talmud is revered and venerated by the Pharisee Jews, while the remaining sects disaffirm it.[261]

The Talmud has a huge impact on the mentality of the Jews.

4. Distortion of the Torah:

Every unbiased, discerning person –alongside the believing Muslims– knows the innocence of the Torah that Allah revealed to Moses –peace be upon him– from much of what is contained in the books of the Jews.

Some of the reasons for this are:
(a) That which occurred to the Torah from disappearance, replication, distortion, and loss. It was altered, changed, and misplaced, as well as going missing seven times between the times of Solomon –peace be upon him– in the year 945 B.C and the year 613 A.D; when it went missing for the seventh time. This proves its loss and lack of credibility.

(b) That which it contains from erroneous beliefs opposing what the Messengers informed of.

(c) That which it contains from blasphemy of the Lord –Mighty and Majestic– and likening Him to the creation. From the examples of that is their saying: “God wrestled with Jacob all night, until Jacob overpowered Him.”

Likewise, their saying:

“The Lord regretted that He created humankind due to what He saw from their wickedness; and He cried until His eyes became inflamed, and the angels visited him.”

Exalted is Allah above whatever the wrongdoers say, by great sublimity.

(d) That which it contains from insult and slander of the Prophets; such as their saying: “Aaron made an idol cast in the shape of a calf and worshipped it along with the Israelites.”

Likewise, it occurs:
“That Lot drank wine until he became drunk, before preceding to commit incest with his two daughters – one after another.”

Also, they say:
“Solomon –peace be upon him– apostatized at the end of his life, and worshipped idols – building for them temples.”

There are many more similar examples of the like of these disgraceful acts which the Prophets –peace be upon them– are utterly free from.[262]

(e) That which it contains from mistakes, impossibilities, and contradictions.[263]

(f) The conflict between the Torah and modern-day science proves that which it contains from scientific errors.

From the books that discuss the foregoing are:
‘What is the Origin of Man?’ and ‘The Torah, the Gospel, the Quran, and Science’ authorship of a French scholar: Dr. Maurice Bucaille. In these two books he proves the existence of scientific errors in both the Torah and the Gospel. At the same time, he establishes the fact there is no contradiction between the Quran and facts proven by modern-day science. Rather he mentions evidence affirming the Quran’s precedence to science by fourteen-hundred years.[264]

Thirdly: The Gospel
1. The Gospel in origin:
The Gospel is a Greek word meaning: good news; glad tidings.[265]

The Gospel according to the Muslims is the great book that Allah revealed to Jesus –peace be upon him– as a completion of the Torah, and as an endorser of it. It conforms to the Torah with regards to most legislation; guides to the straight path; clarifies truth and falsehood; and calls to the worship of Allah alone without any partners. This is the Gospel that was revealed to Jesus –peace be upon him–.

After Jesus’ ascension, the Gospel was distorted, altered, changed, deleted from, and added to.[266]

2. The Gospel post Jesus –peace be upon him–:
The holy book of the Christians is a collection of books comprising the Torah, and the books annexed to it, the Gospel, and the epistles of the Messengers.

The Torah and the books annexed to it are collectively called the Old Testament; while the Gospel –along with the epistles of the Messengers– is called the New Testament.

The Christians regard both the Old and New Testaments to be holy, gathering between them in a single book which they call the Holy Bible.

They also believe that the rulings of the Old Testament were abrogated, and therefore do not practice any of its legislation, as Paul annulled acting in accordance with it. However, they still believe its holiness, and benefit religious knowledge from it – such as information pertaining to the creation of the heavens and the earth, the creation of Adam, stories of the Prophets, supplications, prayers, hymns, and praises.[267]

The New Testament –then– comprises the Gospels and the epistles annexed to it; its contents being as follows: Christs’ mission, a history of his life, a mention of some of the early Christian missionaries and a history of their lives, and other religious epistles –which are, in order–: 1. Gospel of Matthew. 2. Gospel of Mark. 3. Gospel of Luke. 4. Gospel of John. 5. Acts of the Apostles. 6. Epistle to the Romans. 7. First Epistle to the Corinthians. 8. Second Epistle to the Corinthians. 9. Epistle to the Galatians. 10. Epistle to the Ephesians. 11. Epistle to the Philippians. 12. Epistle to the Colossians. 13. First Epistle to the Thessalonians. 14. Second Epistle to the Thessalonians. 15. First Epistle to Timothy. 16. Second Epistle to Timothy. 17. Epistle to Titus. 18. Epistle to Philemon. 19. Epistle to the Hebrews. 20. Epistle of James. 21. First Epistle of Peter. 22. Second Epistle of Peter. 23. First Epistle of John. 24. Second Epistle of John. 25. Third Epistle of John. 26. Epistle of Jude. 27. The Revelation to John.[268]

3. The Gospels regarded by the Christians are:
(a) The Gospel of Matthew; who was from the Twelve Disciples. This Gospel was written in Hebrew or Syriac.

The last copy to be found was in Greek; with there being a difference of opinion regarding who wrote the Gospel and who translated it.[269]

(b) The Gospel of Mark:
which was written by John. Mark is titled ‘Saint Mark the Evangelist’; and was not from the Twelve Disciples of Christ whom Jesus chose to be close to him.

Mark was of Jewish origin; his family were inhabitants of Jerusalem at the time of the appearance of Christ. He was of the first to accept Christ’s call, thus he was chosen from amongst the seventy apostles whom the Holy Spirit descended upon following the ascent of Christ.[270]

He was active in calling to Christianity in Antioch (Greece), North Africa, Egypt, and Rome; before being killed in circa 62C.E.[271]

(c) The Gospel of Luke: they say:
Luke was born in Antioch and studied medicine before becoming a physician – after which he become a disciple of Paul, accompanying him upon his travels. His writings were influenced by his close association with Paul.[272]

(d) The Gospel of John:
John was a beloved disciple of Jesus. Some claim his identity is unknown, and that he was the only one to mention the trinity as well as claim the divinity of Christ – at such an early stage in Christian history.[273]

4. Criticism of the modern Gospel:
Many scholars of Islam –classical and contemporary alike–, as well as Christian academics who converted to Islam, and unbiased Christians – all mention the many weaknesses that occur in the Gospel possessed by Christians today. From these scholars is Shaikh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah in his book: ‘al-Jawab as-Sahih liman Baddala Din al-Masih (The Correct Reply to Those Who Altered Christ's Religion’; and Ibn Al-Qayyim in his book: ‘Hidayat al-Hayara fi Ajwibat al-Yahud wan-Nasara (Guidance of the Confused in Answering the Jews and Christians)’.

Examples of contemporary scholarly work in this field include:

‘Ithaar al-Haq (The Truth Revealed)’ of Shaikh Rahmatullah al-Hindi; ‘Muhadarat fin-Nasraniyyah (Discussing Christianty)’ of Shaikh Muhammad Abu Zahrah; ‘al-Bahth as-Sarih fi Ayyima Huwa ad-Din as-Sahih (The Clear Search for the True Religion)’ of Shaikh Ziyadah bin Yahya ar-Rasi – a Christian scholar who converted to Islam; and ‘Muhadarat fi Muqaranat al-Adyan (A Comparative Discussion of Religion) of Shaikh Ibrahim Khalil Ahmad.

Some of the criticisms of modern versions of the Gospel are as follows:
(i) The early Christians –as Paul mentions in his epistles– are of the opinion that God revealed a book called the Gospel to Christ; which Christ –peace be upon him– called the people to believe in.

However, the Christians have no knowledge what happened to this book.

(ii) The Gospels that the Christians possess were not dictated by Jesus –peace be upon him– nor were they sent down as revelation. Rather they were written after his time.

(iii) The alterations, distortions, and modifications made to the Gospels by scribes.

(iv) The differences and contradictions present in the Gospels. Shaikh Rahmatullah al-Hindi –at the end of his book ‘Ithaar al-Haq (The Truth Revealed)’– mentions over a hundred differences between the Gospels.[274]

(v) The Christians do not know precisely when these books came to be accepted as the binding canon of ‘Holy Scripture’.

Instead they hold that their books gradually became sacred throughout the fourth century after Christ.

(vi) Breakages in the chain of transmission between the books and their authors. The Christians do not have chains of transmission for their books, and do not know their real origin – which leads us to the conclusion that these books are falsely attributed to their authors, and that the Christians merely have blind faith in them.

The like of this does not provide a human soul with the sufficient contentment that these books aim to provide in origin; and that is: avoiding the Anger of Allah and attaining His Good Pleasure.

(vii) It contains blasphemy of the Lord –Exalted and Most High– and attributing evil to the Prophets –peace be upon them–.

(viii) It contains false beliefs that contradict both textual evidence and the intellect.

(ix) It contradicts scientific facts. This is something established by numerous scholars, such as Dr Maurice Bucaille, as aforementioned.[275]

(x) The Gospels –regardless of their genuineness– are void of political, social, economic, and academic concepts.[276]

In summary, the Gospels present today are not the same as the Gospel that was revealed to Jesus –peace be upon him–. Rather they are a mixture of ancient Indic, Greek, and Egyptian religions and paganism – just as they are a representation of Paul’s (Saul) change to Christianity.

This does not mean –however– that the Gospels are free from all truth, and from the words of Christ –and although this is not something that can be proven academically– we are able to establish such due to the Quran mentioning that which supports and attests to.[277]

Fourthly: Is it Permissible for a Person to Adhere to the Torah or the Gospel After the Revelation of the Quran?

It is not permissible for anyone to do so; due to that which has preceded, in addition to –supposing they were genuine– the fact that they were specific to a certain people, and a set era, and because they were abrogated by the Noble Quran.

From this standpoint, the falseness and impermissibility of acting in accordance to these books becomes clear. The only exception to this ruling is that which the Quran concurs with. Further proof indicative of the misguidance of the Jews and Christians and the falsity of their claims is found in the saying of the Prophet: “No Jew or Christian from amongst this nation hears about me, then dies having not believed in that with which I have been sent except that shall be from the inhabitants of the Fire.”[278]

----------------------------------------------------

(253) See: ‘Dirasat fil–Adyan al–Yahudiyyah wan–Nasraniyyah’ of Dr. Saud al–Khalaf (pp. 74).

(254) See: ‘Tafsir at–Tahrir wat–Tanwir’ (3/148).

(255) See: ‘Muqaranah baynal–Quran wat–Tawrah’ of Muhammad as–Suyani; & ‘Dirasat fil–Adyan al–Yahudiyyah wan–Nasraniyyah’ (pp. 74–75).

(256) See: ‘Qaamus al–Kitab al–Muqaddas’ (pp. 467); & ‘Dirasat fil Adyaan’ (pp. 75).

(257) Nineveh is the city in which Jonah –peace be upon him– was sent to. It is situated on the outskirts of Mosul, on the bank of the Tigris river, and was the capitol of the Neo–Assyrian Empire.

See: ‘Mu`jam al–Buldan’ (5/339); ‘Qaamus al–Kitab al–Muqaddas’ (pp. 990); & ‘Dirasat fil Adyaan’ (pp. 76).

(258) This is their order in the Protestant version of the Bible. See: ‘Dirasat fil Adyan’ (pp. 76).

(259) Dr. Saud al–Khalaf –may Allah preserve him– says: “Notice that the people of the Book divide their book into books, chapters, and verses. Each book is made up of a number of chapters, and in this way it is resemblant of the Quran in the way it is split into parts. According to them, each chapter comprises a number of verses; just as the Quran is split into chapters. The verses differ in length and brevity, like the verses in the Noble Quran. The foregoing arrangement is with regards to genre; however the Jews arrange the Books like so:

Firstly: The five Books of Moses.

Secondly: The Former Prophets: Joshua, Judges, Samuel I & II, and Kings I & II. Then come the Latter Prophets: Isiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the Book of the Twelve Minor Prophets: Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi.

Thirdly: Writings – which are mostly literary –: Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Song of Songs, Ecclesiastes, Ruth, Lamentations, Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles I & II.

See: ‘Dirasat fil Adyan’ (pp. 77).

(260) See: ‘Dirasat fil Adyan’ (pp. 76–77).

(261) See: ‘al–Kanz al–Marsud fi Qawa`id at–Talmud’ of Dr. Rohling, translation by Yusuf Nasrullah (pp. 47–50); & ‘Dirasat fil Adyan’ (pp. 120–121).

(262) See: ‘ar–Rusul war–Risalat’ (pp. 104–105); & ‘Dirasat fil Adyan’ (pp. 94–124).

(263) See: ‘al–Bahth as–Sarih fi Ayyuma Huwa ad–Din as–Sahih’ of Shaikh Ziyadah bin Yahya ar–Raasi – who was from the Christian scholars that embraced Islam – (pp. 239–309), wherein he mentions thirty examples of doubtfulness and contradiction in the Torah and the Gospel.

(264) See: ‘Muqaranat at–Tawrah wal–Quran’ of Muhammad as–Suyan (pp. 35); & ‘at–Tawrah wal–Injil wal–Quran wal–`Ilm’ of Morris Bucaille, translated by Shaikh Hasan Khalid.

(265) See: ‘Qamus al–Kitab al–Muqaddas’ (pp. 120); & ‘Dirasat fil Adyan al–Yahudiyyah wan–Nasraniyyah’ (pp. 197).

(266) See: ‘Dirasat fil–Adyan’ (pp. 197).

(267) See: ‘Dirasat fil–Adyan al–Yahudiyyah wan–Nasraniyyah’ (pp. 195).

(268) See: ‘Dirasat fil–Adyan al–Yahudiyyah wan–Nasraniyyah’ (pp. 195–196).

(269) See: ‘Muhadarat fi an–Nasraniyyah’ (pp. 40).

(270) See: ‘Muhadarat fi an–Nasraniyyah’ (pp. 46).

(271) See: ‘al–Mawsu`ah’ (pp. 501).

(272) See: ‘Muhadarat fi an–Nasraniyyah’ (pp. 47).

(273) See: ‘al–Mawsu`ah’ (pp. 501).

(274) See: ‘Muhadarat fi an–Nasraniyyah’ of Shaikh Muhammad Abu Zahrah (pp. 981).

(275) See: ‘Muqaranah at–Tawrah wal–Quran’ (pp. 35).

(276) See: Article of Dr. Muhammad ash–Shahid; ‘al–Bayan’ magazine, no. 22, pp. 86.

(277) See: ‘al–Bahth as–Sarih’ (pp. 239–309); & ‘Dirasat fil Adyan’ (pp. 210–214) for further detail.

(278) Reported by Muslim (no. 153).



Chapter Three: Belief in the Divine Books 2013_110
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Chapter Three: Belief in the Divine Books
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