Preserving the Environment; from an Islamic Perspective
|أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn|
مؤسس ومدير المنتدى
عدد المساهمات : 45898
العمر : 71
|موضوع: Preserving the Environment; from an Islamic Perspective الإثنين 26 يوليو 2021, 12:54 am|| |
Preserving the Environment; from an Islamic Perspective
In the name of Allah, the All-Merciful, the Ever-Merciful
All thanks are due to Allah, Lord of the worlds. May the prayers and blessings of Allah be upon our Prophet Muhammad, the messenger of the true word to all mankind, the sent mercy, the truthful, the chosen, the seal of prophets, the prophet of guidance, the one whose heart was purged from all ills, whose sins were all forgiven, who was sent to seal the messages and the best who has ever walked the earth with his feet. Had the sun earned but part of his perfection it would have never set and had the parents got but part of his mercy their hearts would have melted from mercy. All prayers be upon him, his family and his companions.
The purpose of this paper is not limited to the common concept of ‘environment’ which is defined as everything that surrounds man; creatures and natural phenomena. It rather regards environment as the human being and everything that surrounds him because we don’t see any logical reason in separating man from the environment while he is the most integral part of it. A healthy environment is synonymous to a healthy man, and an unhealthy man who is neglected psychologically, mentally or physically is the greatest harm to the environment.
Vicegerency and trust are the two main tasks of man on earth and they are both about “caring” for man in the first place, and then caring for all the other creatures afterwards. This can never be achieved except through guiding man to the right path in populating the earth and understanding the divine purpose from creation.
Vicegerency on earth, from an Islamic perspective, means bearing the responsibility of populating the earth and preserving the environment. This should be done in return for enjoying all the blessings which Allah bestowed upon man embodied in subjugating the whole universe for his happiness and pleasure.
The subjugation is achieved when man benefits from the goodness and riches of the universe due to his “human” quality; and thus no man (according to the Islamic approach) is allowed to monopolize these benefits for himself apart from others on the spatial or time levels.
Allah chose man as a guardian and a vicegerent in this universe; He gave him the privilege to control and subjugate all its benefits to the extent that he made him the sole ruler of this earth aside from all other creatures. To this responsibility all men will be held accountable on Judgment Day and to this they will be punished or rewarded in accordance to their actions.
Populating the earth and preserving the environment is a process that hinges on two dimensions; the first dimension is about the ideological perspectives which draw the relation between man, the universe and God. The second is about the jurisprudential perspectives from which we derive the jurisprudential rulings that regulate the relation between man and the universe; and between man and the Creator.
This paper aims to highlight the ideological perspectives and jurisprudential rulings that came in Islam to empower man being responsible and capable of preserving his human environment and being able to cooperate with his fellowmen in keeping it healthy.
We will also show that the Islamic law did not stop at the limits of preserving the environment but rather beyond those limits into developing and reforming the environment. This is because Islam urges the Muslims to search, to ponder and to unlock the secrets of the universe that lead to the knowledge of the Creator’s existence and His love.
The Islamic perspective of the heavens, the earth, the inanimate objects, the plants and the animals was the very motive that led man to care for the rest of the creatures, to be merciful to them and to love them. Through loving Allah man will love all the creatures which He created and excelled.
In addition, this research paper will focus on the Islamic dualities that highlight the Islamic perspective for existence like; vicegerency and subjugation, right and duty, theory and practice, preserving and loving, benefit and beauty.
First: Vicegerency and subjugation
Vicegerency is all about caring for the universe and preserving it whereas subjugation is about benefiting from it and enjoying it. Both processes require participation and collaboration. This responsibility falls on all mankind alike and the benefit is also designated for everyone alike; all human beings join forces in these processes since they all share the quality of being “human”. Allah did not limit any of these processes to some people apart from others.
The believer sees himself as a creature of Allah like all other creatures whether human, Jinn, inanimate, animal or plant. Allah made man the guardian and protector of the human universe but he must never monopolize it and he must never superimpose himself to control it. This right was given to all living creatures alike and man must never prevent any other creature from their rights even if these creatures were animals.
Allah created man in this universe and he found himself all alone and helpless to find the things that can help him survive; so Allah facilitated his sustenance and subjugated for him the heavens, the sun, the clouds… etc., so he can find his clean water, fresh air and savory food. Allah did not want man to come to Him in compulsion and just out of an utter need for food and water; He wanted man to “choose” faith willingly and lovingly. He wanted man to reach his certainty through pondering and contemplating the abilities of the creator and His marvels.
Second: Right and duty
The rights are common and shared between all the people; in enjoying and benefiting from the blessings of Allah and His sustenance that does not assign anyone as the guardian of anyone else. The duties are our duties in caring and preserving the universe and the existence because they are the purpose of our vicegerency and trust.
Islamic law appreciates the sanctity of rights to the extent that they were promoted to “duties” for the individual and the community. It included human rights within the universal rights since it is a much wider circle. So if Islamic law, for instance, gives the human being the right to believe then this right enlists the duties of protecting his faith through holding the rituals and worships and calling for this faith in an exemplary method. Likewise, he must request this right, he must fight for it and must never waiver it; not for himself and not for others. So the Muslim must request the Islamic society (or other societies) to provide his right to believe and his right to express his belief freely (without any compulsion to anyone). So as we can see it’s a closed circle of “rights and duties”; like one coin with two faces.
Whereas Islamic law enjoins the Muslim to preserve dignities, it gives the society the right to preserve his dignity and his honor from any aggression that might befall him. The society exerts its best ability to protect and preserve the individual from any degradation no matter what it might cost. Protecting the dignity of the individuals is their right as well as being the duty of the Islamic society; for instance our wealth which is kept under the protection of the community and it assurance.
Islamic law did not give the human being the right to waste his structures; it rather enjoined him to respect and care for his rights in addition to respecting his dignity and protecting it from any defilation. It enjoined him to work and toil so as not to resort to his Creator in humiliation or disgrace.
From the same respect Islamic law regards the relation between man and the environment; just as he is requested to preserve and use it with mercy and compassion he has the right to request living in a clean and beautiful environment where he can feel his freedom and dignity.
The muhtasib (supervisor of the bazaars) in the Islamic state used to play a major role in requesting the rights of the individuals to enjoy a clean environment and enjoy quality services in addition to enlisting quality and excellence in work. It is really amazing when we see the level of civility that was reached by the Islamic civilization!
The muhtasib for instance used to enlist the baker to cover his face (mouth and nose) as he works in case he suddenly sneezes or coughs and something of his spittle mixes with the batter. He used to enlist him to tie a cloth around his forehead lest his sweat would drip in the batter. He also used to enlist him to shave any hair on his arms lest anything would fall in the batter without him realizing it.
Whenever he would bake in the morning he enlisted him to have a person standing next to him with a swatter to expel any flies coming near him.
He used to put some strict regulations for practicing medicine and he used to supervise those regulations closely in anyone practicing the profession. The physician is the one who is learned about body anatomy, pathology and organ functions, has a thorough understanding of prescription drugs for each disease, their substitutions, their composition, their effects and doses. Any loss incurred in these conditions means prohibition from practicing medicine. As for the prescription of drugs or examinations, they are permitted only for a person who has mastered all areas already reported.
Islamic law bound the preservation of the environment with many laws and regulations to ensure that the population of earth and developing it is connected to the general framework of religion since Islamic law is always after reforming the individual and the society without any difficulty or barriers.
That’s why it sanctioned penalties on the individual in order to preserve the environment from any corruption or tampering that might endanger other human beings. Corrupting the earth has various forms and shapes since it includes; injustice, ingratitude, murder and sabotage. Hence the Muslim is requested to abstain from all forms and shapes of corruption.
عدل سابقا من قبل أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn في الإثنين 26 يوليو 2021, 1:24 am عدل 2 مرات
|أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn|
مؤسس ومدير المنتدى
عدد المساهمات : 45898
العمر : 71
|موضوع: رد: Preserving the Environment; from an Islamic Perspective الإثنين 26 يوليو 2021, 12:57 am|| |
Third: Theory and practice
Islamic law made the reconstruction of the universe something obligatory and necessary for man in his life and religion. This reconstruction or population of earth is general and inclusive of all existence and creatures. Islamic law did not impose a particular method or route that can be taken in order to fulfill the mission of development and population; it rather made the process wide and flexible by demanding each man to find his own way into achieving benefit and happiness in his life and it sufficed with drawing the outlines and giving him milestones that can guide his way into true benefit and happiness. It cared to show the general objectives and targets beyond populating our earth and it stipulated for man to take positive and proactive steps (in contrast to being destructive and corruptive) into building his own life as well as others.
Populating the earth which is the responsibility of man, comes in a twofold mission; the method and the target! Ignoring any of these parts is considered a corruption; so ignoring the target of construction and development is a big malfunction in the task of vicegerency. Same thing with ignoring the proper method, which is based on ethical commitment and goodness since it defies the whole purpose of civil construction that can achieve happiness to man.
The dominance of the material side renders man oblivious of how he’s ruining the earth and dumping it with atomic, nuclear or radioactive waste that comes as a result of generating power in his eagerness to achieve direct and quick benefit. This way the earth itself loses a lot of its efficiency in giving and producing.
The ones behind this materialist philosophy did not just suffice with siding from the proper method which is based on ethics and goodness; they even corrupted the method and polluted it with all their emitted cultures about sex, nudity and violence. They even propagated all this out of their belief in atheism and superstitions.
Fourth: Preserving and loving
Islam regards nature and the universe from the perspectives of love and respect. This level even supersedes the level of preservation and development. Islam directs man towards forming a relation with even the inanimate objects; a relation based on longing and yearning. The universe, as seen by Islam, is in a state of constant obedience to Allah, it is in a state of constant prostration to Him. Thus, it loves all the creatures who obey Allah and it cries when they depart life. It also detests those who disobey Allah and it never cares if they perish or die. Those who obey Allah are in a state of harmony with the universe while they prostrate and go on with their worships; as for the others they are in a state of disharmony with everything surrounding them.
We see the Prophet (SAWS) as he left Makkah how he expressed his love and longing for the land on which he grew. He said, “By Allah you are the best of Allah’s lands, the most beloved land to Allah and had not your people expelled me I would have never chosen to leave you.“
The Prophet (SAWS) loved the inanimate land because of its virtue and status; it was the land upon which Allah chose to place His House. At the same time the Prophet (SAWS) detested the odious men for their ingratitude, disbelief, ignorance, corruption and for veering away.
The trunk of a tree longed for the Prophet (SAWS) and the sound of its moaning was heard by the worshipers in the mosque, so the Prophet interacted with it lovingly and he kept rubbing it till it subsided again.
Islam is distinguished for this comprehensive perspective for the whole universe; in how it urges man to preserve it and care for in a way that can help him and others benefit from its resources.
The relation between the universe and its creator
1. The whole universe glorifies Allah. Allah says, “Do you not see that Allah is exalted by whomever is within the heavens and the earth and [by] the birds with wings spread [in flight]? Each [of them] has known his [means of] prayer and exalting [Him], and Allah is Knowing of what they do.” (TMQ, 24:41). Allah also says, “The seven heavens and the earth and whatever is in them exalt Him. And there is not a thing except that it exalts [Allah] by His praise, but you do not understand their [way of] exalting. Indeed, He is ever Forbearing and Forgiving.”(TMQ, 17:44). So long as the universe in glorifying its Lord and thanking its Creator then any aggression on it is definitely a form of corruption that should criminalize its doer and implicate him. Any aggression on the universe is an aggression on the rights of human beings to live. With this perspective the Muslim respects all the creatures (big and small) because he respects the greatness of the Creator and the ability of all His creatures to glorify Him and prostrate to Him.
2. The universe also has its share of glorification. Allah says, “…We caused the mountains and the birds to celebrate Our praises along with David. We had the power to do this-”(TMQ, 21:79). Allah also says, “We bestowed upon David great favor. We said, ‘O mountains and birds! Join with him in celebrating Our praise.’ We softened iron for him, saying,” (TMQ, 34:10). So David, the prophet of Allah who was chosen for the message and was given the wisdom, the science and the dominion in Allah’s earth, was also granted the particular subjugation of the inanimate objects and the animals. Whenever he glorified Allah the mountains used to join along. Whenever he would go lax Allah would order the mountains to glorify Him and so David would be invigorated and active again.
3. Allah also addresses many creatures in the Qur’an, he says, “And your Lord inspired to the bee, “Take for yourself among the mountains, houses, and among the trees and [in] that which they construct. Then eat from all the fruits and follow the ways of your Lord laid down [for you].” There emerges from their bellies a drink, varying in colors, in which there is healing for people. Indeed in that is a sign for a people who give thought.” (TMQ, 16:68-69). He orders the earth and heavens saying, “And it was said, “O earth, swallow your water, and O sky, withhold [your rain].” And the water subsided, and the matter was accomplished, and the ship came to rest on the [mountain of] Judeiy. And it was said, “Away with the wrongdoing people.”“ (TMQ, 11:44). He even gave them the privilege of choosing in, “Then He turned to heaven when it was vapor and said to it and to the earth, ‘Come willingly or unwillingly.’ They both said, ‘We come willingly,’“ (TMQ, 41:11). He made them an offer and He let them chose, “We offered the Trust to the heavens and the earth and the mountains, but they refused to bear it, because they were afraid of it. But man bore it: he surely proved unjust and ignorant.” (TMQ, 33:72).
All of this reflects the amount of respect given to all the creatures in Islam; on the moral as well as the physical levels. From this respect the Muslim must behave with the earth and the heavens and all the other creatures of Allah. He must be driven to protect them, care for them, never to ignore them morally or physically.
The relation between man and the universe
The relation between man and the universe hinges on compatibility and harmony. Even since man descended to earth his mental and civilizational development got connected to his association and harmony with the environment and the universe, to how well he utilized and benefited from the aspects of life; he is not allowed to harm those aspects in any way, on the contrary he must always respect and care for them.
The Muslim, particularly, deals with the creatures of Allah out of a sense of equality and sharing the servitude to Allah. His relations with other people are defined by how attached and connected he is to Allah. He goes to Allah with all the love in his heart and with this love he also approaches all the creatures Allah created. That’s why we find him regarding all the creatures equally; the weak and the strong, the mean and the mighty. His outlook is actually directed to the Creator more than the created. From the realm of “things” the Muslim worships the Qur’an book (mos-haf), the Kaaba, the grave of the Prophet (SAWS) and all these things are but inanimate objects but still he worships them out of respect and love.
|أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn|
مؤسس ومدير المنتدى
عدد المساهمات : 45898
العمر : 71
|موضوع: رد: Preserving the Environment; from an Islamic Perspective الإثنين 26 يوليو 2021, 12:59 am|| |
1. The Prophet (SAWS) gave us a lesson in loving inanimate objects and interacting with them when the tree trunk yearned for him. Anas Ibn Malik narrated that he heard Jabir Ibn Abdullah saying, “The roof of the Mosque was built over trunks of date-palms working as pillars. When the Prophet delivered a sermon, he used to stand by one of those trunks till the pulpit was made for him, and he used it instead. Then we heard the trunk sending a sound like of a pregnant she-camel till the Prophet came to it, and put his hand over it, then it became quiet.“ Some people, even some believers, have hearts that are harsher that this tree trunk; they never yearn for the Prophet (SAWS) or for being apart from him.
2. When the Prophet (SAWS) passed by the mount of Uhud he said, “This is a mountain that loves us and so we love it back.“ He said this despite the hardship that befell him by that mountain and the ordeal of his uncle Hamza’s martyrdom. So mount Uhud loves the Muslims and the Muslims love this mountain. In another narration Anas tells us that the Prophet once climbed the mountain of Uhud with Abu Bakr, Omar and Othman. The mountain gave a tremor, so the Prophet said (to the mountain), “Brace yourself, O Uhud! For on you there are no other than a Prophet, a Siddiq and two martyrs.“
3. His interaction with inanimate objects was not just a character of the Prophet (SAWS) after the revelation but even before it. He is the one who said, “I know a particular boulder in Makkah which used to greet me as I passed by it before the revelation; I still know its location till now.“ The Prophet (SAWS) is saying that he did not ignore this boulder after the revelation but he kept the memory of the boulder not for anything except that it was created by Allah and that it loved Allah and glorified Him. It used to greet the Prophet before the revelation because it knew the mission which will be assigned to him and how he will carry on this mission.
4. There are many other examples from his life close to the above story. When he was chosen for the revelation and whenever he used to go out to answer the call of nature he would keep walking and walking till all the houses would fade away and he would reach the outskirts of Makkah. All the way to his destination no tree or stone he would pass by except that it would greet him, “All peace be upon you prophet of Allah!“
5. Abdul-Rahman narrated, “I asked Masruq, ‘Who informed the Prophet about the Jinn at the night when they heard the Qur’an?’ He said, ‘Your father Abdullah informed me that a tree informed the Prophet about them.“
6. Water even flowed from between his revered fingers and the food glorified Allah when it was between his hands that even his companions heard it. Abdullah Ibn Masud narrated, “We used to consider miracles as Allah’s Blessings, but you people consider them to be a warning. Once we were with Allah’s Apostle on a journey, and we ran short of water. He said, “Bring the water remaining with you.” The people brought a utensil containing a little water. He placed his hand in it and said, “Come to the blessed water, and the Blessing is from Allah.” I saw the water flowing from among the fingers of Allah’s Apostle and no doubt, we heard the meal glorifying Allah, when it was being eaten (by him).“
7. The foreleg of a slaughtered sheep once warned him not to eat it. It was narrated that a Jewess presented him at Khaybar with a roasted sheep which she had poisoned. The Apostle of Allah (SAWS) ate of it and the people also ate. He then said: Take away your hands (from the food), for it has informed me that it is poisoned. Bishr Ibnul-Bara’ Ibn Ma’rur Al-Ansari died. So he (the Prophet) sent for the Jewess (and said to her): What motivated you to do what you have done? The Jewess replied: Who has informed you? He said: This foreleg which I have in my hand has informed me. She said: Yes. He said: What did you intend by it? She said: I thought if you were a prophet, it would not harm you; if you were not a prophet, we should rid ourselves of him (i.e. the Prophet). The Apostle of Allah (SAWS) then forgave her, and did not punish her.
8. Dust was even one of the weapons he used during his battles. He threw it in the wind and it blinded the eyes of the disbelievers at the battles of Badr and Hunayn. Imam Muslim narrated on the authority of Salamah who said: “We fought by the side of the Messenger of Allah, SAWS, at Hunayn. When we encountered the enemy, I advanced and ascended a hillock, a man from the enemy turned towards me and I shot him with an arrow. He (ducked and) hid himself from me. I could not understand what he did, but (all of a sudden) I saw that a group of people appeared from the other hillock.
They and the companions of the Prophet turned back and I too turned back defeated. I had two mantles, one of which was wrapped around my waist (covering the lower part of my body and the other I put around my shoulders. My waist-wrapper became loose and I held the two mantles together. (in this downcast condition) I passed by the Messenger of Allah, SAWS, who was riding on his white mule. He said: “The son of Akwa’ finds himself to be utterly perplexed’’. When the companions gathered round him from all sides, the Messenger of Allah got down from his mule, picked up a handful of dust from the ground, threw it into their (enemy) faces and said: “May these faces be deformed!’’. There was no one among the enemy whose eyes were not filled with the dust from this handful. So, they turned back fleeing and Allah the Exalted and Glorious defeated them, and the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, distributed their booty among the Muslims.“
9. Interacting with inanimate object was not only limited to the earth but also to the heavens. The moon was split into two in a miracle for him. Ibn Masud narrated that during the lifetime of Allah’s Apostle the moon was split into two parts; one part remained over the mountain, and the other part went beyond the mountain. On that, Allah’s Apostle said, “Witness this miracle.” Al-Khatabi says that the split of the moon was a great miracle that was never matched by any other prophet because it could be seen in the whole sky and its impact was the biggest because it exceeded all the known laws and traditions of nature.
10. The wind, clouds and rain responded to him. Anas Ibn Malik narrated that once in the lifetime of the Prophet (SAWS) the people were afflicted with drought (famine). While the Prophet was delivering the sermon on a Friday, a Bedouin stood up and said, “O, Allah’s Apostle! Our possessions are being destroyed and the children are hungry; please invoke Allah (for rain)”. So the Prophet raised his hands. At that time there was not a trace of cloud in the sky. By Him in Whose Hands my soul is as soon as he lowered his hands, clouds gathered like mountains, and before he got down from the pulpit, I saw the rain falling on the beard of the Prophet. It rained that day, the next day, the third day, the fourth day till the next Friday. The same Bedouin or another man stood up and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! The houses have collapsed, our possessions and livestock have been drowned; Please invoke Allah (to protect us)”. So the Prophet I raised both his hands and said, “O Allah! Round about us and not on us”. So, in whatever direction he pointed with his hands, the clouds dispersed and cleared away, and Medina’s (sky) became clear as a hole in between the clouds. The valley of Qanat remained flooded, for one month, none came from outside but talked about the abundant rain.
So the inanimate objects have their respect in the world of the Muslim. Many acts of worship are connected to particular times and places and the best example to this is the circumambulation of the Kaaba during the Hajj. The movement goes along with the movement of the stars and planets that are roving the heavens in their orbits and around their axis. It is very much similar to the movement of the electrons in their orbits around the nucleus within the atom. It all reflects a symbolic image for the structural unity of all the creatures of Allah starting the minutest till the biggest. The whole universe is but a big mosque in which all the creatures prostrate and glorify their Creator.
The human being and all things that exist fall under the same laws that control their movement and stillness. This system expresses the singularity of the Creator that can be seen in all His creations. Each of those creations has a life cycle that starts with his existence, then his development and finally his death. This cycle affects all living things around us; animals, plants, inanimate objects and human beings. Even the stars and galaxies have life cycles that make them change their shapes and become something else. Allah says, “Do you not see that Allah sends down rain from the sky and makes it flow as springs [and rivers] in the earth; then He produces thereby crops of varying colors; then they dry and you see them turned yellow; then He makes them [scattered] debris. Indeed in that is a reminder for those of understanding.” (TMQ, 39:21). Allah also says, “Allah is the one who created you from weakness, then made after weakness strength, then made after strength weakness and white hair. He creates what He wills, and He is the Knowing, the Competent.” (TMQ, 30:54). So all the creatures are similar in their phases of formation and in passing from weakness to strength and from imperfection to perfection! Each form has its duration and age that can never be delayed or advanced in any way.
Likewise, there is a similarity in the way the creatures reproduce. Allah created everything from two attracting pairs that generate life just but mating with each other. The whole of life testifies to the oneness of the creator and the creatures; big or small. Allah says, “And We created pairs of all things so that you might reflect.” (TMQ, 51:49).
Islam set the Muslims free from the realm of “things”, from expecting them and from waiting for them impatiently. So the Muslim deals with the things from the perspective of power and sovereignty; he does not miss a chance without benefiting from the blessings of the things which Allah subjugated for him.
The human being can never realize or encompass the system and laws of the universe just by pondering unless he has faith in himself firsthand and unless he has faith that the universe (which he’s contemplating) is bound by his realization and researching, that its phenomena are not something enigmatic or unexplained, and that he can make use of the universe and utilize its wealth to ensure his life and wellbeing.
The Qur’an confirms that the whole universe is subjugated to man and at the same time it confirms the spirit of true scientific method that urges us to try to explore everything unknown in the universe and all its phenomena on the basis of confidence in the ability of man and science in the face of nature.
Man is part of the universe but he is distinguished from it with his special relation with the Creator. He is assigned with a responsibility that the heavens and earth and mountains could not shoulder. Because of this responsibility all the other creatures agreed to be subjugated to man and so he will be held accountable for them.
Man is also distinguished from all the other creatures because he was created and propped to encompass the universe cognitively. Hence, he was equipped with the ability to move the whole outside world (with its quantitative and qualitative aspects) into his inner world; and it is this very characteristic that made him earn the trust of vicegerency.
The purpose from the abilities he was given and blessed with is to empower him to make use of the universe that was subjugated to him, not to control it and dominate over it. These abilities which were bestowed upon him are only to help him understand the laws of Allah that are encased in the universe and by realizing them he can make use the universe in the way Allah intended for him.
|أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn|
مؤسس ومدير المنتدى
عدد المساهمات : 45898
العمر : 71
|موضوع: رد: Preserving the Environment; from an Islamic Perspective الإثنين 26 يوليو 2021, 1:01 am|| |
So it is not the abilities of man that subjugated the universe form him, the proof to this is:
1. The weakest of creatures (the flies for instance) can infiltrate all the boundaries and if they manage to take any little thing from man he will never be able to get it back from them. Allah says, “O people, an example is presented, so listen to it. Indeed, those you invoke besides Allah will never create [as much as] a fly, even if they gathered together for that purpose. And if the fly should steal away from them a [tiny] thing, they could not recover it from him. Weak are the pursuer and pursued. They have not appraised Allah with true appraisal. Indeed, Allah is Powerful and Exalted in Might.”(TMQ, 22:73-74).
2. The weakest in the realm of human beings (babies who are the weakest physically and crazy people who are the weakest mentally) are able to control and make use of everything that was subjugated to man like; water, animals and others. They react to these things and respond to them not because of a bodily or mental ability of their own.
3. Nature might react with man unintentionally like when he steps (without knowing) on some seeds that get buried deep into the earth and turn into a tree from which an animal might eat and this animal can be hunted down by another man who eats it. Thus Allah makes man a cause in the life of another without him knowing it. Hence, the universe is subjugated by the will and ability of Allah not because man is strong enough to subjugate it.
4. Nature can still react and develop on its own (with the will of Allah) and so it maintains its own aptitude, freshness and beauty. Until very recently in history we could hear of lands that were never before stepped by man but still those lands managed to maintain their goodness and beauty in such a way that spellbinds anyone who sees them. This tells us that the earth has it first Creator and Initiator and that He entrusted in it the ability to maintain itself for millions of years without man knowing anything about it.
5. History, observation and experience tell us many instances where the natural phenomena of the universe went beyond the ability of man and defied him flagrantly at the time when he thought he could control it and know all its secrets. The believer knows that beyond all this is a capable and single Creator and that no one else can dominate this universe but Him, no other bigger power than His. The Qur’an tells us many stories of tyrants and pharaohs who thought their abilities were above all abilities. Allah says, “Pharaoh called to his people, ‘My people, is the Kingdom of Egypt not mine? And these rivers that flow at my feet, are they not mine? Do you not see?”(TMQ, 43:51). His dominion over some land and water (just a small part of the earth) made him think that he could enslave the people. He could never visualize how Moses and his people could defy him. Allah further says, “Pharaoh behaved arrogantly in the land, and divided the people into groups, seeking to weaken one section, slaying their sons and sparing their daughters-he was one of those who spread corruption, We wished to favor those who were oppressed in the land, and to make them leaders and make them inheritors [of Our bounties], and to give them power in the land; and to show Pharaoh and Haman and their hosts that very thing which they feared.” (TMQ, 28:4-5).
6). All the cosmic laws and all the expectations of mankind confirmed that the Pharaoh would be victorious, he behaved arrogantly in Egypt, he enslaved its people and humiliated them, they all testified to being enslaved to him and there was no way Moses and his people could escape his tyranny nor there were any material signs proving that Allah would fulfill His promise to them when he said, “make them leaders”, and “make them inheritors”, and, “give them power in the land”! But had not the ability of Allah interfered and turned all the measurements upside down, changed all the laws of physics and with this Allah brought victory to the believers and the ones who persisted on the right path, this result might have never been attained.
The present day’s man can never settle physiologically or take his true destination towards achieving his mission on earth except if he identified his limitations with the Creator of this universe and its Sustainer. The whole universe is one of Allah’s affairs, “To Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. And to Allah will [all] matters be returned.” (TMQ, 3:109). Allah is the One who created the universe and man, the One who gave man his mind so he can populate the earth rather than corrupt it and so he can know his creator. Try to place man in the frame of the whole universe with its inevitable laws rather than within the frame of his limited abilities and you will see that man has the ability to direct the course of the cosmic incidents according to his will because this is one of the affairs of the Creator of all things and their initiator and sustainer; Allah!
The relation between man and the earth
The perceived relation between man and the earth, from an Islamic perspective, is closer to intimacy and connection rather than preservation and development. The relation between man and the earth revolves around three levels; the least and closest one is that of subjugation and benefit (which is the physical level), the middle level is that of pondering and contemplating (which is the mental level), and the highest level is that of love and intimacy which is the spiritual level.
1. Allah says, “And Allah has caused you to grow from the earth a [progressive] growth. Then He will return you into it and extract you [another] extraction. And Allah has made for you the earth an expanse, that you may follow therein roads of passage.”(TMQ, 71:17-20). The loyalty of man to the earth and his longing to it is like the longing of the child for its mother. Man was created from the earth, he eats and drinks from its wealth and in its bosom he will be buried.
2. Allah says, “From the earth We created you, and into it We will return you, and from it We will extract you another time.” (TMQ, 20:55).
3. The Prophet (SAWS) said, “Protect the earth, for she is your mother.“
4. Lady Aisha narrated, “Whenever anyone complained from anything like a wound or an ulcer the Prophet (SAWS) would blow some saliva on his index finger, place it in the ground and raise it like this and say, ‘In the name of Allah, may our land heal any illness by the will of its Lord.‘” Imam Al-Nawawy explained that “our land” here means the whole earth. It was also said that it is the land of Madinah particularly. So this was how the Prophet (SAWS) used the earth to heal wounds and pains. Al-Baydawy commented that medical research proved later that saliva and the earth have an effect in maintaining the mood and expelling any harm. For this reason our forefathers said that it would be better to take part of your homeland’s soil with you when you travel if you can’t take its water. So there is a sentiment that connects man to the earth upon which he was born and bred and we cannot deny this. Those who have a sound innate nature always have a sickness to their homes and lands and they rarely feel safe and secure except in their homelands.
5. The Qur’an pictures this relation of intimacy that originates between the earth, the sky and man in the verse that says, “And the heaven and earth wept not for them, nor were they reprieved.” (TMQ, 44:29). This emotion that is created between man and the universes was very fascinating for the Arabs when this verse was first revealed. Al-Tabary relates a story narrated on the authority of Saeed Ibn Jabir who said, “A man came to Ibn Abbas and asked him, ‘Ibn Abbas, what do you say of this verse? Does the heavens and earth cry for the people?’ Ibn Abbas answered him, “Yes! There is no man on this earth except that he has a door in the heavens from which comes all his sustenance and to which rises all his deeds. Once any man dies this door is closed and so the heavens cry for him. Same thing for the place where he prays on the earth and mentions Allah. Once he dies the earth cries for him. Except for people like the people of the Pharaoh and their likes; they have done no good deeds that could rise to the heavens nor did they do anything good to the earth. So when they perished neither the earth nor the heavens cried for them.”
The general command of being merciful and kind to all the creatures:
Allah says, “And We have not sent you, [O Muhammad], except as a mercy to the worlds.” (TMQ, 21:107). The Prophet (SAWS) was the “mercy” that Allah sent to all creatures; mankind, Jinn, animals, plants and inanimate objects. The best form of mercy is that of “guidance”; guidance to knowing the Creator, setting the straight method to worshiping him, being merciful to his creatures and benefiting from all the goodness that Allah subjugated for him.
1. Anas narrated that the Prophet (SAWS) said, “By He, in whose Hands is my soul, Allah will not place His mercy except on someone merciful.” So they said, “Prophet of Allah, we are all merciful!” He said, “I am not talking about the one who is merciful to himself, I’m talking about the one who is merciful to all things in general.” (Al-Bayhakei).
2. He commanded us to be merciful to everything at large. He said, “Those who are merciful will be forgiven by the All-Merciful, the Ever-Merciful. So be merciful to those who are on earth so that the One in the Heavens would be merciful to you.” (Al-Tirmidhi). Al-Taibi commented on this narrations saying, “Because being merciful to all the creatures is tenderness in the heart, and the tenderness in the heart is a sign of faith. Those who do not have tender hearts have no faith, those who have no faith are miserable and the miserable will never be tender hearted. The narration is about being merciful to all creatures at large; the godly and the ungodly, the speaking and the mute, the beasts and the birds.“ Ibn-Battal Al-Maghrabei (died in 449 H.) said, “This narration urges us to use mercy with all the creatures alike; believers and disbelievers, all the beasts alike; owned and wandering. It urges us to treat them tenderly! This is one of the things that can expiate our sins so every sane believer must be keen on taking his share of being merciful and he must use this share with all mankind and all animals. Allah did not create us for fun! Included in this mercy are things like; giving food and drink to the hungry, helping people in carrying heavy loads, never being aggressive with them or beating them.“ Al-Aref Al-Bouny said, “If you wish to earn the mercy of Allah then you must be merciful to yourself and others. Do not be despotic with your own good deeds; be merciful to the ignorant with your education, to the humiliated with your honor, to the poor with your wealth, to the old with your youth and compassion, to the disobedient with your advice, to the beasts with your compassion and lack of anger. Those who are closer to Allah are the ones who are merciful to His creatures. Any goodness you do (big or small) must come out of the mercy inside you.“
3. The Prophet (SAWS) said, “Be merciful and Allah will be merciful to you, forgive and you will be forgiven. Woe unto those who insist on doing the wrong things they do while they know it!” (Musnad Ahmad) Mercy is an attribute that Allah bestowed upon His creatures. That’s why the Jurists endorsed it in all actions even when fighting with the disbelievers, in sacrifices… etc. Allah loves His attributes and names (including mercy and forgiveness) and so He loves His creatures to acquire these attributes as well. This narration also warns us against insisting on doing the wrong things or listening to the right words without attempting to understand them or act on them; like the vessels that do not react to anything we fill them with.“
4. The Prophet (SAWS) ordered us to be merciful in everything we do. So whenever we go in or out of our houses we must never slam the doors soundly or harshly since this is contrary to the ethics of gentleness and kindness. He said, “Kindness will never be included in anything except that it will adorn and it, and it will never be taken out of anything except that it will disgrace it.” (Muslim) The “general”form of mercy that was commanded by the Prophet (SAWS) is a much bigger circle than all the meanings of “preservation and care” that we can give to the environment and humanity which is so unlike any law or philosophy found in any time or place other than Islam.
|أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn|
مؤسس ومدير المنتدى
عدد المساهمات : 45898
العمر : 71
|موضوع: رد: Preserving the Environment; from an Islamic Perspective الإثنين 26 يوليو 2021, 1:03 am|| |
The concept of vicegerency from an Islamic perspective:
The vicegerency of man on earth is the divine command for man to take care of the earth and preserve it.
It is an authorization to populate the earth, to reconstruct it and to reform it from any corruption that might befall it:
1. Allah says, “And [mention, O Muhammad], when your Lord said to the angels, “Indeed, I will make upon the earth a successive authority.” They said, “Will You place upon it one who causes corruption therein and sheds blood, while we declare Your praise and sanctify You?” Allah said, “Indeed, I know that which you do not know.”“ (TMQ, 2:30).
2. Allah says, “[We said], “O David, indeed We have made you a successor upon the earth, so judge between the people in truth and do not follow [your own] desire, as it will lead you astray from the way of Allah …” (TMQ, 38:26).
In the first verse we see how keen the angels are on the earth; it is one of Allah’s creatures and they’re obviously afraid of the corruption that might befall it at the hands of man. The “corruption” here is about both time and place. As for the bloodshed it is only connected to man. So they are concerned about both; the earth and man. This is because man is also the creature of Allah and he is worthy of all care and mercy. We see the duality of man & earth in many other verses such as, “And when he goes away, he strives throughout the land to cause corruption therein and destroy crops and animals. And Allah does not like corruption.” (TMQ, 2:205). This last verse is about the threats of corruption, destroying crops and animals and eventually the destruction of man himself who will perish when the food and animals are destroyed.
The angels knew all along that man was given the “choice” and that this choice is going to make him different from all the creatures of Allah. This “choice” will enable him to defy the method unlike all other creatures which are compelled to obey and hence follow the method. The angels knew about the emotions boiling inside man such as desires, passions, whims and lusts; they thought that all of these feelings will inevitably lead man to killing and destruction so as to dominate.
Still Allah tells us that many things are unknown to the angels such as the ability of man to attain knowledge and to restructure it and recall it. Allah says, “They said, “Exalted are You; we have no knowledge except what You have taught us. Indeed, it is You who is the Knowing, the Wise.”“ (TMQ, 2:32). So we learn from this that the corruption of man and the environment is connected to the actions of man and his behavior. If he is overcome by his desires and whims and if he veers from the path of rationality and science he will destroy himself and others. But if his mind prevails and if he seeks to acquire knowledge and wisdom he will coincide with the Sunnah and the path of the “truth” which the Creator shows him; only then will his actions be considered population, construction and creativity.
In the second verse we notice the mention of vicegerency (succession), the earth and the truth (the truth is Allah Himself) and this is how Allah created all the creatures; with the truth. Allah says, “And We did not create the heaven and earth and that between them in play. Had We intended to take a diversion, We could have taken it from [what is] with Us - if [indeed] We were to do so. Rather, We dash the truth upon falsehood, and it destroys it, and thereupon it departs. And for you is destruction from that which you describe.”(TMQ, 21:16-18). Allah also says, “Do you imagine that We created you without any purpose and that you would not be brought back to Us? Then, exalted be Allah, the true King, there is no deity except Him, the Lord of the Glorious Throne.” (TMQ, 23:115-116). Allah (SWT) tells us that when he made David the successor He asked him to judge between the people in truth. Truth here is the equivalent of; justice and righteousness. It is the antonym of purposelessness, playfulness and corruption. The very basis of the dominion that was given to David is the TRUTH, and that’s why Allah tells him right away “and do not follow your own desires”. Following the desires was the very first thing that the angels noticed when Allah created man, so they judged by this that man will corrupt the earth and shed the blood. Truth, on the other hand, is all about rationality and science and this was the blind side that the angels could not see.
Allah (SWT) commands David to judge in truth and justice because this is the way that leads to Allah’s love. Allah says, “…And if you judge, judge between them with justice. Indeed, Allah loves those who act justly.”(TMQ, 5:42).
3. The dominance of man over the universe is a system of delegation rather than being a system of domination and tyranny. Man is assigned to protect and preserve the universe according to the concept of vicegerency we discussed above. So man is responsible for the trust he is entrusted with, responsible if he’s beingcharitable to it and if he’s being good to it and also if he’s being damaging and corrupting. Allah says, “He created death and life so that He might test you, and find out which of you is best in conduct. He is the Mighty, the Most Forgiving One.” (TMQ, 67:2). Allah also tells us about excellence, “It is He who has made the earth subservient to you, so traverse its regions and eat its provisions. To Him you shall all be resurrected.” (TMQ, 67:15). So Allah subjugated the earth for man so he could make use of its resources and hence he is requested to work and toil to be able to harvest its benefit and also to reform it.
The Prophet’s Sunnah also has many examples confirming the importance of work for man and the importance of education on the right path that can give man determination, agility and dignity in his life:
A. Anas Ibn Malik narrated, “A man of the Ansar came to the Prophet (SAWS) and begged from him. The Prophet asked the man: Have you nothing in your house? He replied: Yes, a piece of cloth, a part of which we wear and a part of which we spread (on the ground), and a wooden bowl from which we drink water. The Prophet said: Bring them to me. He then brought these articles to him and he (the Prophet) took them in his hands and asked: Who will buy these? A man said: I shall buy them for one dirham. He said twice or thrice: Who will offer more than one dirham? A man said: I shall buy them for two dirhams. He gave these to him and took the two dirhams and, giving them to the Ansari, he said: Buy food with one of them and hand it to your family, and buy an axe and bring it to me. He then brought it to him. The Apostle of Allah (SAWS) fixed a handle on it with his own hands and said: Go, gather firewood and sell it, and do not let me see you for a fortnight. The man went away and gathered firewood and sold it. When he had earned ten dirhams, he came to him and bought a garment with some of them and food with the others. The Apostle of Allah (SAWS) then said: This is better for you than that begging should come as a spot on your face on the Day of Judgment. Begging is right only for three people: one who is in grinding poverty, one who is seriously in debt, or one who is responsible for compensation and finds it difficult to pay.” (Abu Dawood)
B. Abu Hurayra narrated that the Prophet (SAWS) passed by someone selling some wheat grains. He placed his hand in the pile and his fingers became wet. So the Prophet asked, ‘Who owns this pile?’ When the owner came he said to the Prophet that the rain caused this wetness. So the Prophet said, ‘So why don’t you put the wet parts on top so that the people can see it? The cheaters are not of me.” (Muslim)
Hence, the call of Islam is a call to hard work and its message says, “Work hard in developing and reforming, Allah will see your work and you will be rewarded. But do your work without any cheating or trickery. Constructive work and honesty are a way of life, and any work will not be positive if it lacks honesty and honor.”
Cheating destroys social peace and devastates the economic movement. It creates a state of mistrust between the partners and it ends the inner peace by spreading a state of fear and distrust between the people. All of these features are but manifestations for the corruption of life.
Islam urges us to ponder and reflect on the universe:
Islam urges us to protect our environment through discovering its secrets and preserving its beauty. The movement of the universe is a natural and clear message that speaks out the greatness of the Creator but no one is able to read this message or realize it except the ones who have visions and minds and the ones who are able to ponder and reflect. That’s why the Muslims scholars were always the ones who had the most solid certainty in Allah and His oneness.
The sources of the Muslim’s knowledge are two-fold; the revelation and the universe. The Muslim can never reach full certainty and conviction until he takes from both sources and scrutinizes them. Both sources come from Allah and both sources address the human mind and senses. The revelation, however, is clearer in directing man and guiding him towards the right approach that can enable him to draw his own plan in dealing with the universe and with himself firsthand; in a way that helps him in benefiting and enjoying the subjugated universe.
Reflecting and pondering the universe is an individual duty in Islamic law, it’s even more than just a duty because it is a direct passage that leads the believer to his Lord. On the other hand reflecting is one of the individual’s rights in his Islamic society because it is the only way that leads to education and knowledge. All the means must be facilitated for him in order to enable him to perform this duty. Once the Muslim individuals and their community realize this duty their sciences will prosper and their knowledge will ameliorate; this was actually how the Islamic civilization managed to be a model and comprehensive human civilization one day.
|أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn|
مؤسس ومدير المنتدى
عدد المساهمات : 45898
العمر : 71
|موضوع: رد: Preserving the Environment; from an Islamic Perspective الإثنين 26 يوليو 2021, 1:05 am|| |
1) The Muslim is commanded by the Qur’anic text to reflect and ponder:
• Allah says, “He created seven heavens one above the other in layers. You will not find any flaw in the creation of the Gracious One. Then look once again: can you see any flaw? Then look again and again. Your gaze will come back to you confused and exhausted. We have adorned the lowest heaven with lamps, and We have made them for driving away devils. For them We have prepared the punishment of the blazing Fire.” (TMQ, 67:3-5).
• Allah says, “Who gave everything its perfect form. He originated the creation of man from clay,” (TMQ, 32:7).
• Allah says, “We shall show them Our signs in the universe and within themselves, until it becomes clear to them that this is the Truth. Is it not enough that your Lord is the witness of all things?” (TMQ, 41:53).
• Allah says, “In the creation of the heavens and the earth; in the alternation of night and day; in the ships that sail the ocean bearing cargoes beneficial to man; in the water which Allah sends down from the sky and with which He revives the earth after its death, scattering over it all kinds of animals; in the courses of the winds, and in the clouds pressed into service between earth and sky, there are indeed signs for people who use their reason.” (TMQ, 2:164).
We notice the ending of the last verse “there are indeed signs for people who use their reason” which tells us that this is a clear command for mankind to ponder and reflect on the universe so that they can reach (with this action) full belief and realization of Allah and His laws. Only the people who are willing to use their reason can reach this status, only the people whose minds are able to control their desires and whims, and only the people who are guided to the “truth” upon which this whole existence was based.
This latter verse tells us about three things in existence; place (the heavens and earth), time (the alternation of night and day), and water.
2) The Islamic acts of worship hinge on pondering, contemplating and revering the creativity which is encased in the universe. We have prayers for the solar eclipse, the lunar eclipse and for recalling the rain. The Prophet (SAWS) said, “The sun and the moon do not eclipse because of someone’s death. So whenever you see these eclipses pray and invoke Allah till the eclipse is over.” (Al-Bukhary).
3) Pondering and reflecting will always be followed by realization and this is when the human being will realize his Creator and His Oneness. We have many verses in the Qur’an talking about the higher will of Allah in His universe and that He never leaves anything to chances or nature to control it however they please:
• Allah says, “Who is it that made the earth a stable place to live in? Who made rivers flow through it? Who set mountains upon it and placed a barrier between the two seas? Is there another deity besides God? Indeed, most of them have no knowledge.”(TMQ, 27:61).
• Allah says, “It is He who released the two bodies of flowing water, one sweet and fresh and the other salty and bitter, and set up an insurmountable barrier between them.” (TMQ, 25:53).
• Allah says, “He has set the two oceans in motion, converging together. Between them is a barrier, which they do not overrun.” (TMQ, 55:19-20). The source of the two bodies of water is the heavens since they’re both from water but still one is salty and one is fresh and still they are distributed over the earth evenly so that none of them would overpower the other. Both are important for life and so if one of them overpowered the other this would be a great destruction of life.
4) The verses even command us to ponder our food:
• Allah says, “…They said, “Your Lord is most knowing of how long you remained. So send one of you with this silver coin of yours to the city and let him look to which is the best of food and bring you provision from it and let him be cautious. And let no one be aware of you.”(TMQ, 18:19). This verse is urging us to inspect about the best food. It urges the manufacturer to excel in his work and the farmer to excel in his plantations. If the Muslim’s job will be to search for the best quality and if he will be trained on savoring and choosing that which matches his taste, if he will not just settle for anything but will only insist on the best; all of this will mean that the ones preserving the environment and protecting it will only accept the best in quality.
• Allah says, “Let man reflect on the food he eats. We let the rain pour down in torrents and then We cleaved the earth asunder. We make the grain grow out of it, and grape vines and vegetables, and olive trees and date palms and burgeoning enclosed gardens and fruits and fodder as provision for you and for your cattle to enjoy.”(TMQ, 80:24-32). The first verse is about subjugation and utilization, the second is related to consciousness and inference. The first one urges us to hard work and excellence whereas the second one urges us to believe in the Creator of the universe; the owner of all the blessings encased in the universe and the one who subjugatedit to be an easy means of sustenance for man.
5) The verses urge man to ponder the creation of animals and how they were subjugated for the benefit of man. Allah says, “There is also a lesson for you in cattle. From the contents of their bellies, from between the dung and blood, We give you pure milk to drink, pleasant for those who drink it.” (TMQ, 16:66). Man can never realize the ability of the Creator except by pondering His creations. This verse gives us just a hint of how Allah is able to extract goodness from the exact opposite of it. Allah places our hands on the signs and meanings that can enable us to perform our duty on earth. This duty can never be achieved except if we are able to extract the benefits and rights from the very womb of corruption and evil.
6) The verses urge us to ponder the wind and how it is a tool in constructing life. Allah says, “We let loose fertilizing winds, and bring water from the sky for you to drink; and you could not have stored it up for yourselves.” (TMQ, 15:22). This verse tells us about the role of the wind in initiating growth and life by the command of Allah who sent it to pollinate the plants and increase them. It is not the wind, in itself, that performs this role by the command of Allah who sends it and orders it to perform this role. The proof to this is that sometimes the wind comes to destroy and devastate whereas it comes many other times to bring goodness and pollinate the plants. So the wind is subjugated and commanded! Whatever goodness or destruction it comes with is definitely not from its own will. Allah says, “It is Allah who sends forth the winds so that they raise up the clouds. We drive them to a dead land, and by them bring the earth to life after its death. Such is the Resurrection.” (TMQ, 35:9). So the wind is just the first phase in the life cycle to the earth and as we can see from the latter verse, it is only Allah who sends the wind to move the clouds and initiate the life cycle of the earth.
7) The verses also urge us to contemplate the universe with the initiative of preserving its pristine beauty. Allah says, “…You see the earth, dead and barren, but no sooner do We send down rain upon it than it begins to stir and swell, and produce every kind of luxuriant vegetation: that is because Allah is the truth…” (TMQ, 22:5-6).
So there is a relation between beauty and the truth! The truth enlists man to preserve the origin and the beauty of existence. Allah says, “…And We sent down water from the skies, and thus We made every kind of excellent plant grow there:” (TMQ, 31:10).
Allah also says, “… and sends down water for you from the sky, by which We make luxuriant gardens grow-you could never make such trees grow in them-is it another deity besides Allah? No indeed, but they are a people who equate others with Him…. and who will make you inheritors of the earth?….” (TMQ, 27:60-62).
This latter versemakes a connection between vicegerency on earth and between beauty! Allah made us the vicegerents in order to enjoy all this beauty and develop its existence and to protect it. The clarity of this concept in the Islamic perspective is capable of making the Muslim creative in every industry or task.
Allah says, “He created the heavens and the earth for a true purpose. He is exalted above anything they associate with Him. He created man out of a [mere] drop of sperm: yet he shows himself to be openly contentious! He has created cattle for you: from them you derive food and clothing and numerous other benefits; how pleasant they look when you bring them home in the evenings and when you take them out to pasture in the mornings.
They carry your loads to places which you could otherwise not reach without great hardship-surely, your Lord is compassionate and merciful- He has created horses, mules and donkeys, so that you may ride them, and also so that they may be put on show, and He creates other things beyond your knowledge.” (TMQ, 16:3-8).
The verses start by talking about the truth upon which the creation of the heavens and earth was based. Then they tackle the creation of man ever since he was a sperm drop. Then the verses follow in discussing the necessities and improvements (i.e. the direct benefits, the beauty and the adornments… etc.)
The fifth verse speaks about the warmth, about eating and about the benefits of the cattle.
The sixth verse speaks about the pleasantness we feel inside us just by looking at the camels and cattle.
The seventh verse speaks about the benefits of the cattle in carrying our heavy loads to great distances which we can never achieve on our own except if we go through great hardships.
The eighth verse speaks about the fun we feel in riding the horses, mules and donkeys for pleasure and for adornment. Man must then benefit from the necessary subjugation to be able to acquire his material, moral, physical, psychological and mental health. To do so he must preserve the environment in both its dimensions; beauty and benefits. He must work on improving and excelling whatever achieves these benefits for him.
Allah also says, “Did you not see how Allah sent down water from the sky with which We bring forth fruit of diverse colors. In the mountains there are streaks of various shades of white and red, and jet-black rocks; in like manner, men, beasts, and cattle have their diverse hues too. Only those of His servants, who possess knowledge, fear Allah. Allah is almighty and most forgiving.”(TMQ, 35:27-28).
This tells us the very essence of Allah in His creation hinges on diversity and color consistency in order to create a wow-effect and an endless visual pleasure. Allah says, “The two seas are not alike. The one is sweet, thirst-quenching, and pleasant to drink from, while the other is salty and bitter. Yet from each you eat fresh fish and extract ornaments to wear…” (TMQ, 35:12). So Allah subjugated to us the fresh and salty water along with the lean meat. We see in this latter verse how the water is described as sweet and salty, how the meat is described as lean. Which tells us that Allah did not just subjugate the causes of life to us; He also made them beautiful and pleasant. He even created for us ornaments and jewels in the bottoms of the oceans like pearls so we could enjoy wearing them for beautification.
|أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn|
مؤسس ومدير المنتدى
عدد المساهمات : 45898
العمر : 71
|موضوع: رد: Preserving the Environment; from an Islamic Perspective الإثنين 26 يوليو 2021, 1:07 am|| |
Islam urges us to reconstruct the earth:
1) Allah says, “…It was He who brought you into being from the earth and settled you upon it…’“ (TMQ, 11:61). That’s to say we are ordered to reconstruct the earth by reforming it and providing the necessities that are needed for living. The whole universe with all its manifestations and advantages is subjugated to man so as to serve him; hence man is requested to reconstruct it and protect it. Reconstructing the universe is a feature that achieves the servitude of man to Allah because unearthing the secrets of the universe allows us to take a peek at Allah’s wisdom. In order to be able to achieve his task of reconstructing the earth man needs to ponder deeply about the partial and holistic relations that combine the elements of the universe and control them.
In other words, the wholesomeness of man’s approach in reconstructing the earth is connected to his holistic vision for the first cause beyond the creation of this universe and the nature of the relation the connects man to this cause, as well as the relation the connects him to the rest of the creatures in existence. We can understand the reconstruction of earth as exerting the effort to establish a virtuous and just society that can achieve for man the dignity that Allah destined for him, achieve the freedom which is the cause of his accountability and establish a society that acts peacefully towards nature and man with a prevailing spirit of amity and mercy.
2) Reconstruction must include all the three sides of life; matter, spirit and mind with full balance and alignment such that no one of them prevails over the other. This was exactly what the Prophet (SAWS) did when he migrated to Madinah and built the mosque which was the first form of construction. This constructive act included all the three sides of life; the building, the meeting point, the sanctuary, the conference hall, the worship spot, the lessons hall, the educational hall, the allegiance headquarters, the military headquarters, the planning headquarters and the place where the dawa to Allah is practiced.
Allah says, “It is He who has produced gardens, both trellised and un-trellised, and date palms and field crops, all varying in taste, and the olive and the pomegranate, both similar and dissimilar. Eat their fruits when they bear fruit and give away what is due of them on the day of their harvest. Do not waste anything. He does not love the wasteful!”(TMQ, 6:141).
This verse combines addressing the mind with pondering and contemplating the ability and wisdom of Allah in all the beauty and variety He provided. This image pleases the minds and achieves knowledge and education at the same time. It also addresses the senses in showing the enjoyment of food, along with addressing the spirit and inviting it to purge itself through charity and giving; all of which achieves spiritual and inner peace for man. The verse ends by requesting man not to be wasteful; that’s to say regulating his relations and amounts.
3) Reconstructing the earth, as visualized by Islam, is a two-fold process; first it is about the wholesomeness of the approach and second it is about excelling the process of building and reconstruction and giving it our best endeavor.
Both sides must be implemented in order for the reconstruction process to be successful:
a. Allah says, “How many a town We destroyed which was given to wrongdoing, so that its roofs fell down, and how many a well is deserted and how many a lofty castle is in ruins.” (TMQ, 22:45). Al-Tabary says commenting on this verse, “Its people were perished, it became empty and deserted, it collapsed and fell down over its very people and roofs. Same with the wells that went dry when the people perished. The wells were buried in sand and no more people were able to drink from it. Even the castles were toppled and emptied from their inhabitants. All of this torment was a punishment for the wrong doing of the people; they perished and their ruins stayed as proof to the fact that they existed once.”
b. Allah says, “We destroyed these communities when they went on doing wrong, and We appointed a time for their destruction.”(TMQ, 18:59). Ibn Khaldun mentioned in his Prolegomena a whole chapter about injustice and how it can ruin civilizations. This chapter was titled, “Injustice is a warning for the toppling of construction”. He says, “We must all realize that this is the wisdom from forbidding injustice. Injustice gives way to corruption and the latter gives way to destruction of all constructions. This is also a clear warning that the human species will be perished. So this is the general wisdom of the jurist in all the five objectives of Islamic law; preserving faith, souls, minds, progeny and wealth.“
From what we see, if the financial and construction advancement is associated with backward values and wrong moral ethics this will lead to the corruption of the environment and the destruction of civilizations. The corruption of the method will inevitably lead man to collide with the universe and hence will lead to his suffering and bewilderment. The universe has its methods and laws and it is also connected to its Creator in glorification and prostration. If man acts chaotically and sporadically without any system or law and if he severs his relations with the Creator and the source of revelation he will be doomed with ignorance because of the rift that cut him from his sources of knowledge; the universe and the Creator. He will be on a collision course with all the creatures around him and his life (as well as theirs) will be corrupted.
c. Allah says, “Why, then, were there not among the generations before you upright men who would speak out against the [spread of] corruption on earth-except for the few whom We saved? But the wrongdoers pursued their worldly pleasures and thus became guilty. Your Lord would never unjustly destroy communities while their people were trying to reform.”(TMQ, 11:116-117). These verses explain to us an intricate and precise approach of how Allah intends for man to end injustice and how He commands him to push it away with truth. “And thus became guilty” is the cause for exterminating nations that have flourished on injustice and following desires and whims.
d. Allah says, “Then if you turn away, you are likely to spread corruption on the earth and sever your ties of kinship.”(TMQ, 47:22). If you turn away from the Divine method the result of your action will lead to corruption and severing ties of kinship. It will lead to corruption on earth and severing connections with human beings. This also confirms the structural unit we spoke about earlier.
e. Allah says, “When he turns away, he sets out to spread corruption in the land, destroying crops and cattle. Allah does not love corruption.” (TMQ, 2:205). So turning away from the path of truth will definitely lead to environmental corruption both on the level of human beings and the universe. The structural unit in the Qur’an, in addition to the structural unit in creating the universe, is the biggest proof to the oneness of the Creator who created and commanded.
4) Allah pairs faith (the method) with good deeds (building). He also pairs the right to earn benefit with toil and excellence:
a. Allah says, “Messengers, eat what is wholesome and do good deeds: I am well aware of what you do." (TMQ, 23:51).
b. Allah says, “Solomon smiled broadly at its words and said, 'Lord, inspire me to be thankful for the blessings You have granted me and my parents, and to do good deeds that please You; and include me, by Your grace, among Your righteous servants!'" (TMQ, 27:19). Prophet Solomon, when he found that nature responded to him and was subjugated fully to him, he discovered that he could talk to insects and birds. So he supplicated to Allah for guiding him to the right method and asked Him to help him persevere on his good deeds (building) in the way that pleases Allah.
c. Allah says, “We did not create heaven and earth and all that is between them in vain. That is the opinion of those who deny the truth. Woe untothose who deny the truth, when they are cast into the Fire- shall We treat those who believe and do good works the same as those who spread corruption in the land; shall We treat the pious the same as the wicked?" (TMQ, 38:27-28). Those who believe and do good deeds have followed the right path and have built and constructed. They are the ones who believe that Allah (SWT) created the heavens and earth on truth and justice not for fun or without any purpose. As for the corruptors, they have disbelieved in the right path and they did not do any good deeds; they thought the worse of their Creator when they were led astray by thinking that He created all this for no purpose.
|أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn|
مؤسس ومدير المنتدى
عدد المساهمات : 45898
العمر : 71
|موضوع: رد: Preserving the Environment; from an Islamic Perspective الإثنين 26 يوليو 2021, 1:09 am|| |
Islam urges us to forbid corruption and corruptors:
The cosmic order has its destined laws and rules which are so accurate and precise. If any of these laws are side-stepped even by an atom the whole universe will collapse. Allah says, “The sun cannot overtake the moon, nor can the night outpace the day: each floats in [its own] orbit." (TMQ, 36:40). Allah created the universe hinging on relations of compatibility between its parts. We see this relation between the ebb and flow, attraction and repulsion between the stars and planets in their orbits and between the atoms and molecules. Should the forces of attraction overcome the forces of repulsion (or the other way round) the whole universe will fall apart.
Same thing with the human souls in their relation with each other (or with animals and inanimate objects); forces of attraction and repulsion bind all these relations in many ways such as love and hate, or war and peace.
The human being must be balanced in his relations so as not to disrupt his life with any imbalances:
1. Allah says, “Those who break Allah’s covenant after they have pledged to keep it, and sever whatever Allah has ordered to be joined, and spread corruption in the land-it is they who are the losers." (TMQ, 2:27). They break Allah’s covenant by corrupting His methods, and they sever whatever Allah has ordered by the imbalance they cause in the equilibrium He created between the components of existence. They sever that which must not be severed and so they put all human relations on a collision course with Allah and the universe. This whole formula will definitely end in defeat and misery in this life and hereafter.
2. The original state that Allah created for man and the universe is based on reformation and regularity. Corruption only shows its head in the life of man and the universe when the innate nature of man is corrupted. Allah says, “Corruption has appeared on land and sea because of the evil which men's hands have done: and so He will make them taste the fruit of some of their doings, so that they may turn back from evil." (TMQ, 30:41). So that they turn back to what they left; the very essence of goodness!
3. Allah says, “…A clear Sign has indeed come to you from your Lord. So give full measure and full weight, and do not deliver short. Do not corrupt the land after it has been set in order. This is for your own good, if you are true believers." (TMQ, 7:85). Prophet Shuayb (Jethro) ordered his people to fulfill the rights of others and not to come short in delivering those rights. He ordered them to give measure and weight in full so as to regulate the relations between the people. It is a call for justice and fairness and it leads to the reformation of man and earth alike.
4. Allah commanded Korah in the Qur’an saying, “But seek the Home of the Hereafter by means of that which Allah has bestowed on you; do not forget to take your portion [of the Hereafter] in this world.' Be good to others as Allah has been good to you and do not strive for evil in the land, for Allah does not love the evil-doers.'" (TMQ, 28:77).
5. Allah says, “Who could be more wicked than someone who prevents Allah’s name from being mentioned in His places of worship, and seeks to bring about their ruin…." (TMQ, 2:114). There is nothing more wicked or evil than preventing the reformation that takes place inside the worship places of Allah; by worshiping Him, mentioning Him and educating people about Him. There is nothing more wicked than seeking to bring about the ruin of these places either physically by destroying them or morally by disrupting their reformation role, or by marginalizing their role in the society till they become incapable of refining the souls and radiating knowledge.
This is considered the biggest assault on the freedom of man and the freedom of belief. We can expand the “houses of Allah” to include the whole earth in the sense that Allah made the whole face of the earth pure and fit for praying according to the narration of the Prophet (SAWS) the verse would mean that there is nothing more wicked than corrupting the earth by assaulting the method and the thought through corrupting the environment and the human civilizational structure.
6. Allah says, “Do not spread corruption on the earth after it has been set in order-pray to Him with fear and hope, Allah’s mercy is close to those who do good." (TMQ, 7:56).
7. Allah says, “Do not obey the bidding of those who are given to excesses, those who spread corruption in the land instead of putting things right.'" (TMQ, 26:151-152).
8. The Prophet (SAWS) forbade his companions from corrupting the earth even while they were preparing to rendezvous with the enemy. He said, “Do not betray, do not deceive, do not maim and do not kill a newly born.” (Muslim) In another narration he also added, “Do not burn a church and do not cut a palm.” (Musanaf Abdul-Razek) This same request was repeated by Abu Bakr to the army of Osama Ibn Zeid. He said, “I beseech you to do ten things; Do not kill a woman, a child, or an old man. Do not cut down a blossoming tree, do not destroy a building, and do not kill a sheep or camel, except for the purpose of eating it. Do not submerge or cut down a palm tree. Do not be excessive, and do not be cowardly.” (Mutaa Malik, Book of Jihad). So the Muslim has a mission of peace with everything, not a mission of war against nature or man and he is certainly not a corruptor or a destroyer.
The relation between love and corruption:
There is an inverse relation between love and corruption in the verses of the Qur’an. Allah says, “…and We have sown among them enmity and hatred till the Day of Resurrection. Whenever they kindle the fire of war, Allah puts it out. They spread evil in the land, but Allah does not love the evil-doers." (TMQ, 5:64). Enmity and hatred lead to war and aggression; which is the very essence of corrupting the earth.
The adjective (evil-doers) tells us that love and peace are the original state of creation and that hate and enmity are the very essence of corruption. In this latter verse Allah tells us that He does not love the evil-doers, and in another verse (2:205) He tell us that He does not love corruption or evil. Islamic law ordains protecting man from himself without killing himself. Allah says, “Spend for Allah’s cause: do not cast yourselves into destruction by your own hands. Do good, Allah loves the doers of good." (TMQ, 2:195). So Allah loves the good-doers and does not love the evil-doers. He loves the just people and does not love the aggressors.
Islam forbids us from wastefulness:
Wastefulness squanders the resources of life, that’s why Allahforbids and says,
1. “…Each tribe knew its drinking-place. [We said], 'Eat and drink what Allah has provided and do not act wrongfully in the land, spreading corruption.'" (TMQ, 2:60). Allah gave every tribe of the Israelites its share of water from the stones and He informed them about it so that no tribe would override the other. Allah did so because He knew the differences between then and how envious they were. He did not want any tribe to be wasteful in its share or to be greedy in wanting to control the share of the other. He finished this off by commanding them not to do any corruption because corruption will be the result of wastefulness and aggression. Wastefulness consumes the environmental resources and it threatens the very existence of man in the present or the future. Many other verses forbid us from being wasteful and commanding us to be moderate.
2. Allay says, “Give to your relatives their due, and also to the needy and the wayfarer. Yet do not spend extravagantly; spendthrifts are the brothers of Satan, and Satan is ever ungrateful to his Lord-" (TMQ, 17:26-27).
3. Allay says, “Be neither miserly, nor so open-handed that you suffer reproach and become destitute." (TMQ, 17:29).
4. Allay says, “They are those who are neither extravagant nor niggardly, but keep a balance between the two;" (TMQ, 25:67).
5. Allay says, “O Children of Adam, dress yourself properly whenever you are at worship: and eat and drink but do not be wasteful: Allah does not like wasteful people." (TMQ, 7:31). So wastefulness is an aggression on the rights of others in life and their right in obtaining the necessary livelihood like eating and drinking.
|أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn|
مؤسس ومدير المنتدى
عدد المساهمات : 45898
العمر : 71
|موضوع: رد: Preserving the Environment; from an Islamic Perspective الإثنين 26 يوليو 2021, 1:11 am|| |
Islam urges us to share the benefit of everything Allah subjugated for us:
Subjugation, from the Islamic perspective, enlists us to share the benefits with each other and to provide what is important for our continuity in life:
1. Allah says, “It is He who created everything on the earth for you…" (TMQ, 2:29). This verse has more significance about the general benefit for all mankind. “You” here is about every human being and it confirms the fact that benefit is for all and the fact that all human beings have the right to enjoy the necessities of life according to Islamic law. So the Muslims cooperate with his brothers in performing the duties of preserving and protecting the environment. They must also share the benefit with each other. But the Muslim has a duty bigger than anyone else because Islamic law decrees the duty of protecting the environment as being intrinsic to the task of populating and reconstructing the earth.
2. Allah says, “… For a while, there is an abode for you and a provision on earth." (TMQ, 7:24). The word “earth” here means the whole earth not part of it. The word “abode” means a place to settle and enjoy the necessities of life like; food, drink, air and movement with all due respect and dignity for everyone. The word “provision” is about the aesthetics of life; comfort, pleasure and the entertainment of living on earth. The word “for a while” means that it is all temporary but that it will require the passage of time. This noble verse combines all the meanings of existence; man, time, place, the origins of life and beauty. It tells man that with his “settlement” on earth comes several tasks related to reconstructing the earth and the mission of vicegerency. All sons of Adam have the right to benefit from the resources of the earth in such a way that achieves settlement, pleasure and enjoyment of the subjugated universe. This enjoyment will last for as long as man is alive and in this all men are equal. So no man must monopolize the rights of others in life or existence and he must only take what is enough to let him live in dignity with things such as food, clothes, domiciles and all the other necessities and basics.
3. Allah say, “…He measured out its means of sustenance all in four Days; this is for those who ask for it." (TMQ, 41:10). The sentence “for those who ask for it” is all about equality between all human beings. Allah measured the sustenance and livelihoods for all people alike so no one will fall short of his sustenance and Allah will never give one and deny the other. Allah answers everyone because He did not destine for his sustenance to be monopolized by some and denied for some. His giving was never connected to the faith or belief of anyone because His giving is based on the fact that we are all human beings and Allah wanted us to seek His love out of choice not out of compulsion. Had he wished to compel us He would’ve been able to do it no doubt; but Henever wanted us to choose faith out of our need for food, drink or dress and that’s why Allah provides for the believer as well as the disbeliever.
4. Allah says, “And tell them that the water [of the well] is to be divided between them, and that each one should drink in turn.'" (TMQ, 54:28). Since water is the source of life and without it both men and animal would perish, we must then divide it between ourselves and never deprive anyone from it. This Islamic perspective is so distant from the meanings of aggression or monopoly that plague the material schools of thought which visualize man as an absolute owner who is not accountable to anything outside himself. The Islamic perspective stands on an exactly opposite position with all the values and meanings of love and peace.
5. Same thing comes in the Prophetic Sunnah where the Prophet (SAWS) says, “All mankind are the children of Allah and the most beloved to Allah are the ones who are beneficial to their children.” (Al-Bayhakei).
6. The Prophet (SAWS) decreed during his time to have the people share three things; water, forage and fire. These three things are the basic sources of livelihood and the basic sources of energy. Ibn Abbas narrated that the Prophet (SAWS) said, “The Muslims are partners in three things; water, forage and fire. It is forbidden to sell any of these.” Abu Saeed commented that water here means “running water”. (Ibn Majah). Abu Hurayra also narrated that the Prophet (SAWS) said, “Three should never be inhibited; water, forage and fire.” (Ibn Majah). Abu Hurayra also narrated that the Prophet (SAWS) said, “The benefit of water should never be inhibited with the purpose of inhibiting forage.” (Al-Bukhary).
The two latter narrations explain the first one where the Prophet (SAWS) means to tell us that these three things should be shared between the people; not divided but shared. This means that all people should benefit from these three things as much as their needs and the rest should be left for the others or for the cycle of life to take its course. We must share many other things that Allah subjugated for us but the Prophet (SAWS) stressed these three things for their importance and in other narrations he added “the salt”.
This was what the Prophet decreed being the ruler of the Muslims and the purpose beyond this was to stop monopolization of the basic needs of life. So the Muslim ruler can decreed some laws and regulations that prevent monopoly of any basic resources of life in order to better the life of man and protect the environment. Particularly the water since no living soul can bear the absence of water for long. That’s why the Prophet (SAWS) warned those who are responsible for water sources from preventing any living soul from drinking. He said, “Allah will not look upon three on Judgment Day; He will not purify them and He will torment them painfully; one of those is a man who had authority over a water source but he prevented the wayfarer from drinking.” (Al-Bukhary).
7. Islam also respects individual property as well as the collective property. It made the development and protection of the environment a circle that goes between these two properties. The instinctive need to own things and control them is respected and acknowledged by Islam but we must never override the rights of the community to benefit from the necessities of life like water, air and food. Property, whether individual or collective, must work on serving the very existence of man. So protecting the environment, in Islam, comes on two levels; protecting the individual since he is the vicegerent and the community (or the state) being responsible for protecting the individual property from any aggression, and punishing anyone who would dare override the rights of the community. The individual property, from the Islamic perspective, is the motive for protecting the environment out of our need to work and excel. This can be seen in how the Prophet (SAWS) used the individual property in developing and ameliorating the environment where he said, “Anyone who revives a barren land will own it…” (Abu Dawood) The barren land is the land that was never cultivated or populated with life. This narration is about respecting work and motivating the people to exert effort. This is how individual property can be used to motivate people into reconstructing and populating.
Islam orders us to preserve cleanliness on the personal and environmental levels:
Islam made purity (ablution) a condition for valid worship and same with purifying the place in which we perform our worship, our dress and covering our private parts. Purity is a condition for earning the love of Allah. Allah says, “…Allah loves those who are constantly repentant and loves those who purify themselves."" (TMQ, 2:222). Allah also says, “…Within it are men who love to purify themselves; and Allah loves those who purify themselves." (TMQ, 9:108). These verses are about purifying the souls, spirits, minds and thoughts.
Islam urges us to watch our purity and cleanliness in many narrations that come along the following topics:
Urging us to clean our environment:
1. Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) was asked by Abu-Barza, “O Prophet of Allah, teach me something that I could benefit from.” The Prophet said, “Remove harm out of the people’s way.” (Muslim)
2. Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) said, “Avoid the two damnations!” When the people asked him what he meant he said, “Urinating or defecating in the path of the people or in the shade.” (Abu Dawood)
3. Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) also said, “Avoid three damnations; defecating in your food/drink sources, in the road or in the shade.” (Abu Dawood)
Urging us to cure our illnesses and seek the proper medicine: The Prophet (SAWS) said, “Seek cures for your illnesses! Allah has never created an illness except that He created the cure; except for one illness; death!” (Abu Dawood)
Urging us to resort to quarantines in case of plagues: Islam acknowledged quarantines at the time of the Prophet (SAWS) who said to his companions, “If you hear of it (meaning the plague) in any place then never enter that place. If it comes right where you are then never try to escape or leave your land.” (Al-Bukhary)
Urging us to clean our place! The Prophet (SAWS) used to sweep the floor of the mosque from the dust with his own hands, using a sweep!” (Ibn Abu Shayba) A woman used to care for the cleanliness of the mosque and then this woman died. The companions did not care much for her death and they did not tell the Prophet about her. But they were amazed to find the Prophet (SAWS) asking about her and missing her absence. When he learned of her death he was so sad and he berated them for belittling her role and not telling him about her death. He even visited her grave, stood on it and prayed for her. The way he dealt with the death of this woman made the companions realize how important she is and how important her role is. Abu Hurayra narrated, “A black woman (who used to clean the mosque) was missed by the Prophet and so he inquired about her and learned that she died. He said, ‘Why did not you tell me?’ It was like he was angered that they belittled her. He said, “Show me her grave.” He went there and prayed for her and said, “These graves are pitch-black forthe buried souls. Allah only lightens them up when I pray there.” (Muslim)
|أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn|
مؤسس ومدير المنتدى
عدد المساهمات : 45898
العمر : 71
|موضوع: رد: Preserving the Environment; from an Islamic Perspective الإثنين 26 يوليو 2021, 1:13 am|| |
Urging us to wash our hands:
1. Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) said, “The blessing of eating is in performing ablution before it and after it.” (Abu Dawood) The ablution meant here is washing the hands and the mouth.
2. The Prophet (SAWS) ordered us to wash our hands once we get up in the morning. He said, “Whenever any of you wakes up so let him wash his hands thrice before he eats. He never knows where his hands were while he was sleeping.” (Muslim)
Urging us to clean our mouths and teeth! He said, “Whoever eats garlic or onion should keep away from our mosque or should remain in his house.” (Al-Bukhary) This means that if we don’t maintain the cleanliness of our teeth and breath we will be denied praying in Jamaa because bad breath harms the people praying next to us. The Prophet (SAWS) ordered us to keep cleaning our teeth and mouth and he was keen on using miswak till the moment he died. He used miswak to clean his mouth and this bark is taken from a tree that is compatible with human beings; it sanitizes and cleans the mouth, teeth and gums. It is also available everywhere and very affrodable. The Prophet (SAWS) said about it, “It purifies the mouth and pleases the Lord.” (Al-Bukhary). He also said, “Had I not feared to make things difficult for my nation I would have ordered them to use miswak before every prayer.” (Al-Bukhary).
Urging us to care for our hair:
1. He said, “Whoever has any hair then let him be good to it.” (Abu Dawood).
2. Abu Qatada Al-Ansary narrated that he asked the Prophet (SAWS), “I have a huge mane! Should I comb it?” The Prophet said, “Definitely and be good to it.” So Abu Qatada used to daub his mane twice every day after he heart that. (Malik).
3. The Prophet (SAWS) was in the mosque one day when a man with an unruly mane and beard entered. The Prophet (SAWS) made a gesture with his hand asking the man to go out and tidy his hair and beard. The man did so and came back so the Prophet asked the, “Isn’t this better than someone coming in with unruly hair as if he was a devil on the loose?” (Malik).
4. Jabir Ibn Abdullah said, “The Prophet (SAWS) came and saw a man with unruly hair so he asked, “Couldn’t he find something to comb his hair with?” He saw another man with soiled clothes so he asked, “Couldn’t he find some water to wash his clothes?” (Abu Dawood).
Urging us to care for our clothes:
1. Allah says, “And your garments do purify," (TMQ, 74:4).
2. The Prophet (SAWS) said, “No one with an atom of pride in him will enter paradise.” So a man asked him, “But we like to keep our clothes and shoes looking nice!” So the Prophet answered, “Allah is beautiful and He loves beauty. But pride is disdaining the truthand despising people.” (Muslim).
3. He also said, “You are approaching your brothers now so fix your garments and shine like stars. Allah does not like vulgarity or vulgar.” (Abu Dawood).
Islam and preserving water:
Water is the origin of life. Allah says, “…And that We have made every living thing out of water? Will they still not believe?" (TMQ, 21:30). Allah also says, “It is Allah who created the heavens and the earth and sent down rain from the sky and produced thereby some fruits as provision for you and subjected for you the ships to sail through the sea by His command and subjected for you the rivers." (TMQ, 14:32). And He says, “…and what Allah has sent down from the heavens of rain, giving life thereby to the earth after its lifelessness and dispersing therein every [kind of] moving creature, and [His] directing of the winds and the clouds controlled between the heaven and the earth are signs for a people who use reason." (TMQ, 2:164).
1. The Prophet (SAWS) forbad us from polluting the water. He forbade the people from urinating in stagnant water (Muslim). Urinating in stagnant water will not just pollute it but it will turn it into a swamp that spreads diseases and illnesses.
2. The Prophet (SAWS) ordered us to protect our food from contamination. He said, “Turn off the lamps if you want to lie down. Close your doors, tie the mouths of your water skins, and cover the food and drinks.” (Al-Bukhary).
3. He forbad us from blowing in any food containers. (Abu Dawood) This is to protect the food from any contamination or microbes.
4. He used to drink water on three batches rather than gulping it all at once. He said, “This will quench your thirst and won’t harm you.” (Muslim) The Arabs before Islam used to gulp the water in one go and most of it would drip on their chests and all over their beards which looked so primitive and uncivilized. The Prophet (SAWS) wanted to change this mental picture and wanted the Muslim to be civilized and clean in eating and drinking.
5. He forbade us from being wasteful in using the water even when we perform our ablution. He ordered Saad (while he was performing ablution) saying, “What is all this wastefulness?” Saad asked him, “Is there any wastefulness in ablution?” The Prophet said, “Yes! Even if you were standing at the banks or a river!” (Ibn Majah).
Islam and preserving the plants:
1. The Prophet (SAWS) said, “If anyone cuts the lote-tree, Allah brings him headlong into Hell.” (Abu Dawood)
2. He also said, “No Muslim will plant a tree except that everything that eats from it will be considered a charity in his favor. Whatever is stolen from him will be a charity, whatever the beasts eat will be a charity, whatever the birds eat will be a charity, and anyone eating from it will be a charity.” (Muslim).
3. He also said, “Anyone planting a tree and waiting patiently for it till it bears fruits will get a charity with anything benefiting from this tree.” (Musnad Ahmad).
4. He also said, “If the last day comes and any of you has a palm shoot in his hand then let him plant it first.” (Musnad Ahamd).
Islam and protecting animals and being gentle to them:
1. The Prophet (SAWS) said, “Beware never to use the backs of your rides as pulpits! Allah subjugated them for you so they can carry you from one place to the other otherwise you would have suffered on your own without them. Allah also subjugated the earth for you so you can deliver your lectures while standing on it.” (Abu Dawood).
2. Abdullah Ibn Jabir narrated, “One day, the Prophet entered a grove which belonged to one of the Ansar, and there he saw a camel. When the camel saw the Prophet, he moved toward him. Tears were flowing out of his eyes. The Prophet approached him, rubbed his head, and the camel calmed down. The Prophet asked, “Who is the owner of this camel?” A young man from the Ansar said, “He belongs to me, O messenger of Allah!” The Prophet said, “Don't you fear Allah, Who handed you the ownership of this beast? He complained to me that you do not feed him and you over work him.” (Abu Dawood)
3. Anas Ibn Malik narrated that a family from the Ansar had a camel which they used and then the camel suddenly refused to let them ride it. So they went to the Prophet (SAWS) complaining how the camel is refusing to work and how their plants are almost dying from thirst. So the Prophet asked them to take him to their garden and when he came there he saw the camel standing at one end so he went to it. The people warned the Prophet because the camel was very aggressive and they were afraid it might hurt the Prophet. But when the Prophet (SAWS) looked at the camel the camel approached him and fell down to its knees right in front of him. The Prophet (SAWS) placed his hand on the camel’s forehead and lowered it as down as possible and then slowly he pulled it back into work once more.” (Musnad Ahmad).
4. He said, “While you are travelling if you traverse a green land then linger there for a while till the camels and cattle take their fill. If you traverse a barren land then hurry out of it. Once you decide to camp then choose the sides of the roads.” (Abu Dawood)
5. The Prophet (SAWS) said, “A woman was tormented because of a cat. She confined it in a place till it died. The woman went to Hell because she neither fed the cat nor let it go out to find its own food.” (Al-Bukhary)
6. The Prophet (SAWS) said, “As a man was walking once he became so thirsty. He found a well of water and went down to get himself some water and drink it. As he came out of the well he saw a dog that was so thirsty it was eating the wet sand near the opening of the well. He said to himself, “This dog is just as thirsty as I was!” So he went down the well one more time and brought some water in his shoes which he caught by his mouth as he climbed up the well. Then he gave the water to the dog that drank it. Allah thanked the man and forgave all his sins.” The men asked the Prophet, “Prophet of Allah, will we be rewarded for the animals?” The Prophet said, “For any soul that has a wet liver.” (Al-Bukhary)
7. Lady Aisha narrated, “The Prophet’s family had a beast. Whenever the Prophet would go out the beast would play and run all around. Once it felt the Prophet coming in it would just lie down still the whole time the Prophet was in the house because it feared it might hurt him.” (Musnad Ahmad)
8. Ibn Abbas narrated, “The Prophet would forbid us from provoking the animals into wrestling with each other.” (Abu Dawood)
9. Jabir narrated that as the Prophet sat once he saw a donkey whose face was branded so he said, “Let me tell you that I will damn anyone who brands an animal on its face or even beat it on its face.” (Abu Dawood)
10. Jabir Ibn Abdullah narrated the Prophet (SAWS) would forbid them from killing the animals slowly. (Muslim)
11. He said, “Do not use anything that has a life in it as an object.” (Muslim)
12. He also said, “Beware the milk-cow.” (Muslim)
13. He said, “Allah decreed excellence on everything, so if you kill then do it charitably and if you slaughter then do it charitably. Sharpen your blade and rest your animal.” (Muslim) Imam Al-Nawawy said that this narration is a compendium of all the rules of Islam, and Allah knows best.
14. Ibn Abbas narrated that a man rested an animal which he wanted to slaughter while he was sharpening his blade. The Prophet said to him, “Isn’t it enough you’re slaughtering it, you want to kill it twice?? For God’s sake sharpen your blade away from the animal and before you rest it down like this!” (Al-Hakem)
|أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn|
مؤسس ومدير المنتدى
عدد المساهمات : 45898
العمر : 71
|موضوع: رد: Preserving the Environment; from an Islamic Perspective الإثنين 26 يوليو 2021, 1:15 am|| |
Islam and mercy for the birds:
1. The Prophet (SAWS) said, “He who kills a bird for fun will find this bird approaching him on Judgment Day saying, ‘My Lord, this man killed me for fun and not for any benefit.’” (Musnad Ahmad)
2. One of Prophet Muhammad’s companions narrates, “We were on a journey and during the Prophet’s absence, we saw a bird with its two chicks; we took them. The mother bird was circling above us in the air, beating its wings in grief. When Prophet Muhammad returned he said, “Who has hurt the feelings of this bird by taking its chicks? Return them to her.” (Muslim)
3. Abdullah Ibn Masud narrated that someone took two chicks of a bird (hamra), which came in panic searching for its chicks. Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) then asked, “Who has distressed it by taking its chicks?” Then he asked them to return the chicks which they did. (Abu Dawood)
Islam and the ecological balance:
The Prophet (SAWS) urged us to watch the ecological balance by protecting all the species of animals from extinction so as to maintain this intricate balance:
1. The ecological balance protects all the quantities and measures which Allah destined in the universe. Allah made an intricate balance for everything and He based all the relations between the constituents of the universe on this calculated balance.
Any interference from man would topple the balance and definitely lead to extinction:
a. Allah says, “We have spread out the earth, and set upon it firm mountains and caused everything to grow in due proportion." (TMQ, 15:19).
b. Allah says, “There is not a thing but its storehouses are with Us. But We only send down each thing in an appropriate measure:" (TMQ, 15:21).
c. Allah says, “Allah knows what every female bears. He knows of every change within the womb. For everything He has a proper measure;" (TMQ, 13:8).
d. Allah says, “He sends down water from the sky that fills riverbeds to overflowing, each according to its measure. The torrent carries along swelling foam, akin to what rises from smelted ore from which man makes ornaments and tools. Allah thus depicts truth and falsehood. The scum is cast away, but whatever is of use to man remains behind. Allah thus speaks in parables." (TMQ, 13:17).
In this verse “that fills riverbeds to overflowing” tells how the amount of water is measured to the exact quantity needed to overflow the riverbeds. Any disruption in the amounts will corrupt the earth and perish mankind because too much water will drown the earth and life. Same thing if the riverbeds became too narrow to hold the water. In the same verse we also have this sentence, “Allah thus depicts truth and falsehood. The scum is cast away, but whatever is of use to man remains behind” which tells us about the war between truth and falsehood and thatuseful thing will always survive in the end to benefit people and populate the earth. As for falsehood it goes away like the scum from which no one benefits.
e. Allah says, “We have created everything in due measure;" (TMQ, 54:49).
f. Allah says, “The sun and the moon move according to a precise calculation; the stars and the trees bend in prostration. He raised the heavens and set up the measure, so that you should not transgress the measure. Always measure with justice and do not give short measure." (TMQ, 55:5-9).Precise calculation, balance and justice; these verses tell us about creation and how it was based on the balance. Allah is commanding us to preserve the balance and justice.
2. The ecological balance preserves the lives of all the living species:
a. Allah says, “There is not an animal that moves about on the earth, nor a bird that flies on its two wings, but are nations like you. We have left out nothing in the Book-they shall all be gathered before their Lord." (TMQ, 6:38). So they are “nations like us”created by Allah, sharing this earth with us; and so we must respect them and care for their rights to live. This is all part of our duty as vicegerents of Allah on earth. That’s why Allah commanded Noah to carry in his Arc one pair from eachspecies to keep it from extinction.
b. Allah says, “…We said to Noah, 'Take into the Ark a pair from every species, and your own family-except those on whom the sentence has already been passed, and all the true believers.' But only a few believed along with him." (TMQ, 11:40). So protecting the various species of animals and birds is so important that Allah orders Noah to carry them on his Arc, next to importance comes his family and next to importance comes the rest of the believers. The Arc was shared by all of them for survival, just as the earth is. This tells us how important the ecological balance is and how we should all protect the existence of each other on earth. The Sunnah of the Prophet (SAWS) also tells us how to respect insects, animals and birds; how to protect these species since they are nations just like us.
c. The Prophet (SAWS) said, “An ant stung a prophet once and so he ordered his men to burn down the whole village of ants. So Allah revealed to him, “An ant stung you and you burnt down a whole nation of glorifying ants!” (Al-Bukhary).
d. The Prophet (SAWS) said, “Were dogs not a species of creature I should command that they all be killed. So only kill the purely black ones.” (Abu Dawood) Al-Nawawy said, “If the dog is rapacious then it must be killed if not then it can be spared whether it was a useful dog or not.” Imam Abul-Maali said, “This command is abrogated. It is true that the Prophet (SAWS) ordered the killing of dogs once then he forbade that and this is how it ended. He ordered the killing of the purely black dogs once since this type was obviously rapacious at his time. But this command was abrogated.” From the above we can see that the Prophet’s order to kill the black dogs and then to spare them was only about the ecological order because the rapacious black dogs have spread so much in the Madinah that they started to threaten the security of mankind and the lives of other animals. So he ordered to kill them and then he abrogated the command to preserve the ecological balance and hence the existence of the universe.
3. The ecological balance is based on establishing ecological protectorates:
a. The Prophet (SAWS) said, “Ibrahim made Allah's House a Sacred Area and a safe refuge. I have made what is between the two sides of Al-Madinah a Sacred Area. Therefore, its game should not be hunted, and its trees should not be cut. Neither should anyone carry any weapons or arms there.” (Musnad Ahmad).
b. This is the closest towards the definition of a protectorate as we know it in our modern days. The Islamic preserves where for the protection of plants, animals and man all alike; not just from death but also from feeling any fear. Islamic protectorates (as symbolized by the sanctified house) brought the concept of security and safety to anyone entering such a place.
Islam and environmental peace:
Environmental peace starts with respecting man and acting charitably towards him since he is part of the ecology. He must be protected and developed as part of the task Allah assigned to us. Any aggression against man or his dignity or his respect is an aggression against the whole ecology and a corruption of the earth.
Respecting humanity starts with:
First: Humility. This is about respecting the humanity of man and never transcending over him for one reason or the other. Even if he is misguided and loses his way to Allah and disbelieves in Him! Those who are guided and those who know the true path of faith and belief must respect his humanity and his right in sharing this earth and cooperating to preserve life and our common existence. The Prophet (SAWS) says, “Allah has revealed to me that we must be humble so that no one would oppress another or brag over him.” (Abu Dawood). Being humble is not in the sense of disdaining ourselves or undermining our dignity, honor or freedom. Being humble means respecting one another! Abu Saeed narrated that the Prophet said, “Do not disdain one another.” So they asked, “In what way do we disdain one another Prophet of Allah?” He said, “He sees Allah ordering him to do something and he doesn’t convey it to the others. On Judgment Day Allah will ask him why he didn’t convey His orders and his answer will be, ‘I was afraid of the people!’ So Allah will tell him, ‘It is Me you should’ve been afraid of.’” (Ibn Majah).
Second: Abstaining from harm. The Prophet (SAWS) forbidsus from harming our neighbors. He said, “No one will enter Paradise if his neighbor was not spared from his harm.” (Muslim) So this narration clearly urges us not to harm our neighbors in any way. Neighborhood includes the Muslim, the disbeliever, the free person, the slave, the rich, the poor, the near, the far, the foreign, the individual and the community. It includes your neighbor who lives close to you, your friend, your colleague and even the one sitting next to you in the mosque. As for the harm it includes all forms of physical or moral harm such as pollution or contamination of the environment in any way whether visual, audio, radioactive or airborne. It includes all forms of physical and mental abuse. Hence protecting the environment starts with the neighbor. The narration does not only urge us to abstain from harming our neighbor but we must also protect him against any harm by making him feel safe and peaceful just because of living next to a Muslim; a Muslim from whom no harm can ever come.
Harm or abuse can come in many forms:
• Writing graffiti on the walls or hanging pictures or ads of the houses of stores without asking permission of the owners first. This is considered a violation of ownership. Same thing with the countries that produce nuclear power and dispose of their radioactive waste in such a way that harms their neighbors without permission or even compelling them by force.
• The Prophet (SAWS) forbid the people from eating garlic or onion and then coming right after it to pray in the mosque because bad smells are offensive to the worshipers.
• Al-Miqdad describes the gentleness of the Prophet (SAWS) and how he protected his friends and neighbors from any noise. He said, “…So we milked them and every person amongst us drank his share and we set aside the share of the Prophet (SAWS) and it was his habit to come during the night and greet the people present there in a manner that would not wake up one in sleep but make one who was awake hear it.” (Muslim)
• Whenever he would wake up at night to do his vigil prayers he would recite the Qur’an in such a way that would never wake up the sleeping but would still entertain the ones who are not sleeping.
• His companions used to knock on his door with their finger nails so as not to make any unnecessary noise.
Third: Love. The Prophet (SAWS) says, “None of you shall believe until he loves for his brother what he loves for himself.” (Al-Bukhary)
Hence, Islamic culture is an environmental culture. It respects man; it respects his taste and his feelings. The environmental culture is an intrinsic part of our religion culture even if we noexplicit texts mention it.
Preserving the Environment; from an Islamic Perspective