منتدى إنما المؤمنون إخوة The Believers Are Brothers
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منتدى إنما المؤمنون إخوة The Believers Are Brothers

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ثمانون مسألة فقهية وتربوية من أحكام يوم عاشوراء إعلام الأشرار بحكم الطعن بالصحابة الأبرار مسائل شهر الله المحرم فضل عاشوراء وشهر المحرم شهر الله المُحرَّم وصيام عاشوراء الشيخ علي الطنطاوي والعام الجديد لا مزية لآخر جمعة في العام البدع التي أحدثت في شهر المُحرَّم عاشــــــــــــــــــوريات ورقاتٌ في [يوم عَاشُوراء] مسائلٌ وأحكامٌ 22 فضيلة لمن صام عاشوراء حكم الاحتفال بعاشوراء أو إقامة المآتم فيه عاشوراء بين هدي الإسلام وهدي الجهلاء شهر الله الأصم (المحرم) هجرة الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم كانت في ربيع الأول ولم تكن في المُحرَّم مع الحسين -رضي الله عنه- في كربلاء لماذا يخافون من الإسلام؟ معالم إيمانية من يوم عاشوراء عاشوراء والهجرة النبوية من أيام الله تعالى لماذا لا نجعل يوم مقتل الحسين مأتماً؟ أَثَرٌ مَشْهُورٌ يُرَدَّدُ فِي نَهَايَةِ كُلِّ عَامٍ رأس السنة هــــل نحتفل به؟ هكذا نستقبل العام الجديد فضل شهر الله المحرّم وصيام عاشوراء فتاوى حول صيام عاشوراء الترغيب في صوم المُحرَّم عاشوراء وصناعة الكراهية وتجديد الأحقاد إلى متى؟ عاشوراء ودعوى محبة الحسين أحاديث عاشورية موضوعة منتشرة في بعض المنتديات عاشوراء والهجرة النبوية من أيام الله تعالى مآتم الرافضة في يوم عاشوراء رسالة في أحاديث شهر الله المحرَّم جــــــداول شهـر الله الـمحرم وعاشـوراء ما صح وما لم يصح من أحاديث في يوم عاشوراء مـاذا تعرف عـن عـاشــوراء شهر الله المحرم قصتا عاشوراء صفة صيام النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لعاشوراء شهر محرم ويوم عاشوراء الطود العظيم في نجاة موسى الكليم وهلاك فرعون اللئيم البدع التي أحدثت في شهر محرم الأحاديث الواردة في صيام عاشوراء الأشهر الحُرم بداية التاريخ الهجري


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 Important Issues on Zakât

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل 
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مُساهمةموضوع: Important Issues on Zakât    14/06/17, 02:02 pm


Bismi Allahi Alrrahmani Alrraheemi
In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful
Praise is to Allah Alone, and peace and blessings be upon the Prophet  and his family and Companions
 
Important Issues on Zakât
=====================
This  treatise  aims  at  exhorting  and  reminding  the significance of the Zakât towards which most of the Muslims are very careless as they are not particular in giving it out, in spite of the fact that it is one of the five pillars of Islam and  that without it Islam cannot be firmly established.

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:
“Islam is based on five (pillars): To testify that there is no God except Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah; To offer Salât )prayer); To pay Zakât (obligatory charity); To observe  Saum  (fasts  during  the  month  of Ramadan) and; To perform Hajj (pilgrimage to
Makkah(.”

It is obligatory upon every Muslim, in possession of wealth, to pay  Zakât (obligatory charity).


This Islamic command possesses plenty of advantages of which some are mentioned below:
1. It meets the needs of the poor of the society.

2.  It strengthens the good relation between the rich and the poor, as everyone isnaturally inclined towards the one who does good to him.
3.  It purifies one’s self and sanctifies it; and  it purges one’s moral ofcovetousness and miserliness; as is stated in the Qur’ân: 3
“Take Sadaqa (alms) from their wealth in order to purify them and sanctify them with it” (9:103).
4. It promotes open-handedness, generosity and sympathy in a Muslim towards the needy persons.


5.  It draws Allah’s blessing; causes increase in wealth and the replacement of spent out; as Allah describes:
“And whatsoever you spend of anything (in Allah’s cause), He will  replace it. He is the Best of those Who grant Sustenance.” (34:39).

And also the Prophet (peace be upon him)  has stated in an authentic Hadith that Allah says:
“O Children of Adam! If you give (in Allah’s cause), We shall give ou.”

And there are many more benefits in it.

On the contrary, a severe punishment would incur upon those who act miserly and are negligent in paying out the Zakât. Allah describes regarding them:
“And those who hoard up gold and silver (Al-Kanz––the money, the Zakât of which has not been paid), and spend it not in the Way of  Allah, ––announce unto them a painful torment. On the Day when that (Al-Kanz: money,  gold  and  silver,  etc.,  the  Zakât  of which has not been paid) will be heated in the fire  of  Hell  and  with  it  will  be  branded  their foreheads, their flanks, and their backs: (and it will  be  said  unto  them): ‘This  is  the  treasure which  you  hoarded for yourselves. Now taste of what you used to hoard’.” (9: 34, 35)

The above verses clarify that the wealth of which Zakât has not been paid, is a hoarded treasure for which its owner would be punished on the Day of 4 Resurrection.


The same has also been described by the Prophet (peace be upon him) in the following Hadith:
“If any owner of gold or silver does not pay what is due on him, when the Day of Resurrection would come, plates of fire would be beaten out for him; these would then be heated  in  the  fire  of  Hell,  and  his  sides,  his forehead  and  his  back  would  be  cauterised with them.

Whenever these cool down, (the process is) repeated during a day the extent of which would be fifty thousand years, until judgement is pronounced among slaves, and he sees whether his path is to take him to Paradise or to Hell.”

Then the Prophet (peace be upon him)  informed of the owners of the camels, cows, and goats; who do not pay their Zakât, that they would be punished on the Day of Judgement.

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:
“Whoever is made wealthy by Allah and does not pay the Zakât of his  wealth, then on the Day of Resurrection, his wealth will be made like a bald-headed poisonous male snake with two  black  spots  over  the  eyes (or two poisonous glands in its mouth). The snake will encircle his neck and bite his cheeks and say, ‘I am your wealth, I am your treasure’.

Then the Prophet (peace be upon him) recited the noble verse:
“And let not those who covetously withhold of that which Allah has bestowed on them of His Bounty (wealth) think that it is good for them (and so they do not pay the obligatory Zakât).

Nay, it will be worse for them; the things 5 which they covetously withheld shall be tied to their necks like a collar on the Day of Resurrection.” (3:180)

Zakât is obligatory on the following four types of property:
1.  The produce of earth, like grains and fruits.

2.  The grazing animals.
3.  Gold and silver.
4.  Commercial commodities.


For all types of properties, Nisab (minimum amount of property liable to the payment of Zakât) is fixed, below which no Zakât would be imposed on them.

The minimum quantity for the first category i.e. grains, fruits, (wheat, rice, dates, grapes, barley, etc.) is 5 (five) Wasq and one Wasq (approx. 135 kgs.) is 60  (sixty) Sâ‘ according to the Sâ‘ of the Prophet, and one Sâ‘ is equivalent to nearly four times of both handsful of a man of average built.

Moreover, if in cultivation, irrigation was made through rains or canal or fountain and like this without any effort, one-tenth of the total produce is due to be paid as Zakât.

If the field was irrigated by waterwheels, and other devices  for  irrigation which involved labour; twentieth part of the  total produce is to be paid as Zakât.

And  regarding  the  Zakât  of  animals,  detailed  study of it may be had from the authentic Ahadith of the Prophet (peace be upon him) or from scholars of Ahadith,  as  we  intend  in  this  booklet  only  a  brief account of the subject.

And the minimum amount (Nisâb) of silver for the Zakât to be due on it, is 140 (one hundred and forty) 6

Mithqâl, which is equivalent to 56 (fifty-six) Saudi Riyals.

And the Nisâb of gold is 20 (twenty) Mithqâl which is equivalent to 11

 7 (eleven and three-seventh) Saudi Junaih or 92 (ninety-two) grams.

Now, the Zakât due on both gold and silver is one-fortiet .)

 40 or 2.5%) of the total amount (quantity) provided one is in possession of at least the minimum amount (Nisâb) as mentioned above, of both or any one of them, and a year has passed over them.

But as regards Zakât on the benefit derived from the capital  (i.e.  original amount), the condition of passing over one year on it, does not apply. The benefit would be included in the capital (original amount) at the time of calculation for payment of Zakât; and likewise  the new births in  grazing animals  will  be  added  to  the  original  number of animals for the payment of Zakât, if the original number  reaches the Nisâb and completes a year without any consideration of time passed over the new births.

The same ruling, as in gold and silver, holds good in the case of  currency notes, coins or bills also, whether  be  it  dirham  or  dinar  or  dollar or others, provided  its  value  reaches  the  minimum  amount (Nisâb) of either gold or silver; and a year has passed over it. When  the above conditions are fulfilled, one-fortieth part)

 40  or 2.5%) of the total value would be given out as Zakât.

The same would apply to the ornaments of the women, made from gold or silver for personal use or lending as loan, when these reach the Nisâb and one year has passed over them, in line with the opinions of authentic scholars in the light of Prophet’s saying:
“If any owner of gold or silver does not pay the Zakât  due  on  him,  when  the  Day  of Resurrection would come, plates of fire would be  beaten out for him; these would then be heated in the fire of Hell  and  his sides,  his forehead  and  his  back  would  be  cauterised with  them. Whenever these cool  down,  (the process is) repeated during a day the extent of which would be fifty thousand  years, until judgement is pronounced among slaves, and he sees whether his path is to take him to Paradise or to Hell.

It  is  narrated  that  once  the  Prophet (peace be upon him):
On seeing a woman with two bracelets of gold in her hands, asked her whether she gave out the Zakât of it. When she replied in negative, he (peace be upon him) said, “Would it please you if Allah puts on you two bracelets made of fire.” On hearing this, she put off these and said, “These are for Allah and His Messenger.” (Abu Daud, Nasâi)

Also it is narrated by Umm Salamah (may Allah be pleased with her):
While she was wearing an anklet of gold, she asked the Prophet (peace be upon him), “O Messenger of Allah! Is it a Kanz (a hoarded wealth).” The Prophet (peace be upon him) replied, “If it has  been purified (by paying Zakât of it), it is not a Kanz (hoarded wealth).”

This command is also supported by other Ahadith.

As regards the Zakât on commercial commodities, its  value  would  be assessed at  the end of one year and one-fortieth)

/ 40 or 2.5%) part of the present value would be given out as Zakât, no matter its 8 present value is equal to the purchase value or it is more or less. It is in accordance  with the Hadith narrated by Samurah (may Allah be pleased with him) :Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) enjoined us to give out Sadaqah (Zakât) from whatever we prepare for sale.” (Abu Daud)

This includes lands for sale, buildings, cars, machinery for deriving  water or any other article obtained for sale.

As for buildings constructed for rent but not for sale, Zakât should be paid on the rent after a year passes over it; but the building itself is not liable for Zakât as it is not an item for sale. Likewise, personal cars and those for hire are not liable for Zakât since they are not meant for sale as the owner has purchased it for his use. And if the  owner of the rental cars accumulates the returns up to the amount  that is liable for Zakât, then he should pay Zakât if one year passes over such money whether he had kept it for personal  expenses,  or  for  expenses  in  marriage,  or for such as settling debts or buying real estate or for any  other  purpose;  this  is  in  accordance  with the evidence  of  Shariah  on  the  obligation  of  Zakât.

According to the authentic views of scholars, debt can not be an excuse for nonpayment of Zakât.

Similar  is  the  case  for  the  wealth  or  money  of orphans  and  mentally  retarded people; when  it reaches the Nisâb and a year passes over it  the Zakât must be paid, and their guardians should give out the Zakât  on  their  behalf  when a year passes over the goods.


According to the Hadith narrated by Mu‘adh, when he was sent to Yemen, the Prophet (peace be upon him) told him:
“Verily  Allah  imposes  upon  them  Sadaqah (alms) on their wealth to be taken from the rich and then given to the poor.” 

Zakât is Allah’s right and so it is not allowed to give it to someone not deserving  with  the  intention  to gain his favour; nor a person, who doesn’t deserve it, is  allowed  to  use  it  for  making  gains  or  saving himself from harm. Rather a Muslim should give out Zakât to those who deserve it on grounds that they are among the people entitled to it and not with any other  intention;  it  should  be  given out  with  good faith  and  solely  to  please  Allah  and  in  this way he will get Allah’s reward and replacement.

Allah categorizes those who deserve Zakât in His Noble Qur’ân:
“As-Sadaqat (here it means Zakât) are only for the Fuqara (poor), and Al-Masakin (the poor) and those employed to collect (the funds) and for to attract the hearts of those who have been inclined (towards  Islam); and to free the captives; and for those in debts; and for Allah’s cause (i.e. for Mujahidun––those fighting in the holy battles)  and for the wayfarer (a traveller who is cut off from everything); a  duty imposed by Allah. And Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.” (9:60)

From  this  glorious  verse ending with the two great attributes of Allah (Subhanahu wa ta’ala) we get the warning that He, Allah (Subhanahu wa ta’ala) is aware of the state of His slaves and of those among them  who deserve  or  do  not deserve Zakât. In this verse Allah further tells us that He is Wise in His Shariah and so he does not put anything except in the right position;  and  hence  if  anything  about  His Shariah is not clear to anyone, even then he should be satisfied with it and obey its commands.

May Allah grant us knowledge in His religion and sincerity  in  implementing  it,  and  help  us  in  the performing  of  deeds  leading  to His Pleasure, and save from the deeds leading to His Anger. Verily, He is All-Hearer and Nearer.
May Allah bless His slave and  His  Messenger  and  his  family  and  his Companions. 


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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Important Issues on Zakât    14/06/17, 02:11 pm

The Second Treatise 
================
The Excellence of Fasting in Ramadan and Night Prayers in it, with Important Rulings not known to some People.
 
In the Name of Allâh, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful From Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz to the Muslims.

May Allah guide me and them to the path of the believers, and grant me and them knowledge of the Qur’ân and the Sunnah. Ameen!

Assalamu Alaikum wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuhu.
 
The Second Treatise 
=================
The Excellence of Fasting in Ramadan and Night Prayers in it, with Important Rulings not known to some People.

Then after:
This is a brief exhortation on the excellence of fasting in the month of Ramadan and getting up at nights for worship during it, as well as the benefit of competing in it in good deeds; besides, there is also an elaboration of certain vital rules of this fasting that might not have come in the knowledge of some people.

It is  an  established  fact  that  Allah’s  Messenger (peace be upon him) used to inform his Companions about the commencement of Ramadan and he (peace be upon him)  also used to tell them that the month of  Ramadan  is  a  month  in  which  the  doors  of Rahmah (grace) and doors of Jannah (Paradise) are opened; while doors of Jahannam (Hell) are closed; and  during  that  period  the  devils  are  tied.


The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:
“When  it  is  the  first  night  of  Ramadan,  the doors  of  Jannah  (Paradise)  are  opened  and none  of  them  is  closed;  and  the doors of Jahannam (Hell) are closed and none of them is opened; the devils are tethered; and a caller calls saying: ‘O those who seek righteousness, get closer; O those who seek evil, be you at a loss; it  is  upon  Allah  to  bar  (Hell)  fire,’  and that will happen every night of Ramadan.”

The Prophet (peace be upon him)  also said:
“Ramadan has come to you, the month of Barakah (blessings); Allah covers you during the month, descends Rahmah (grace), removes sins and answers the invocations. Allah sees (in this month) your competitions (for good deeds) and so He boasts to the angels about you. Show Allah what is better (than this) by yourselves; verily  the wretched are those debarred from Allah’s Rahmah (grace)”.

And the Messenger (peace be upon him)  said:
“Whoever fasts in Ramadan with firm belief and  expecting  reward on it, his previous sins are forgiven; and whoever gets up in the nights of Ramadan to worship, with firm belief and expecting reward on it, his previous sins  are forgiven; and whoever gets up at nights of Qadr during Ramadan with firm  belief and expecting reward on it, his previous sins are forgiven.

The Messenger (peace be upon him) said that Allah says:
“All the deeds of Adam’s sons (people) are for them,  and  the  reward  of good deeds is multiplied ten times to seven hundren times, except Saum (fasting) which is for Me. And I will give the reward for it. He has left his food, drink and desires for My sake; there are two pleasures for the person observing Saum, one at the time of breaking his Saum and the other at the time when he will meet his Lord, and the smell coming out from the mouth of a person observing Saum is better with Allah than the aroma of musk.

There are various Ahadith on the benefits of fasting in Ramadan and worshipping at nights therein.

So a believer should seize this opportunity in which Allah has  bestowed grace upon the believers. So they should aspire to obey Allah, shun bad deeds and should work hard in performing what Allah has made obligatory on them, particularly offering the five prayers, for, these are the pillars of Islam and the foremost obligation after the two testimonies. It is therefore an obligation upon Muslims (male or female) to establish them and perform them in their right times with submissiveness and composure.

Among the most important obligations  regarding prayers  (Salât)  upon men is performing them in congregation  in  the  houses of Allah (Masjid) in which Allah has enjoined that His Name be remembered; as He says in His Noble Book:
“And offer prayers perfectly (Iqamat-as-Salât) and give Zakât and Irka‘ (i.e.  bow  down  or submit  yourselves  with  obedience  to  Allah) along with Ar-Raki‘in.” (2:43)

Allah also says:
“Guard strictly the (five obligatory) prayers especially  the  middle (i.e. the best) (Asr) prayer. And stand before Allah with obedience (and do not speak to others during prayers).” (2: 238)


And He said: 
“Successfull indeed are the believers. Those who offer their prayers with all solemnity and full submissiveness.” (23:1, 2)

He also said:
“And those who strictly guard their (five compulsory congregational) prayers  (at their fixed stated hours). These are indeed the inheritors who shall inherit Firdaus (Paradise).

They shall dwell therein forever.” (23: 9-11)

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:
“The difference between us (Muslims) and them (Kuffar) is prayers and whosoever leaves prayer is disobedient (infidel).”

Next to Salât (prayers) in importance is to pay Zakât, as Allah says:
“And they were commanded not, but that they should worship Allah, and worship none but Him Alone (abstaining from ascribing partners to Him),  and offer prayers perfectly (Iqâmat-as-Salât) and give Zakât and that is the  right religion.” (98:5)

Allah further says:
“And offer prayers perfectly (Iqâmat-as-Salât) ,and  give  Zakât  and  obey  the  Messenger (Muhammad (peace be upon him)  ) that you may receive mercy (from Allah).” (24:56).

The Qur’ân and the Sunnah of the Messenger (peace be upon him)  have described that whoever does not pay Zakât over his wealth, shall be punished on the Day of Resurrection.

The most important issue in Islam after prayers and Zakât, is fasting during Ramadan which is one of the five pillars of Islam as mentioned in the Hadith of the Prophet (peace be upon him).

“Islam is based on five (pillars):
To testify that there is no God except Allah, and Muhammad is the  Messenger of Allah; To offer Salât (prayer); To pay Zakât (obligatory charity); To observe  Saum  (fasts  during  the  month  of Ramadan) and; To perform Hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah).”

A Muslim should protect his/her fasting and waking up for worship at nights, from all that Allah has forbidden, be it in deeds or in uttering, because the purpose of fasting is to obey Allah (Subhanahu wa ta’ala) and glorify His sanctities and fight the self against its desires in obeying his Lord, and get the self accustomed to abstaining from what Allah has forbidden, as the fasting does not mean merely abstaining from eating and drinking the things that break fast.


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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Important Issues on Zakât    14/06/17, 02:22 pm

In this sense Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) has also said in an authentic Hadith:
“Fasting is shield; so when it is a day of fasting one should not indulge in  obscene behaviour or glamour, or shout about; if any one quarrels with him or  engages him in fight, he should say: ‘I am fasting’.”

The Prophet (peace be upon him) further said in an authentic Hadith:
“Whosoever  doesn’t  abstain  from  false utterings, obscene deeds and absurd acts, Allah does  not  care  for  his  abstaining  from eating and drinking.”

What we learn from all the above reports and from various others, is that it is a must for a fasting person to abstain from all that Allah has forbidden and strictly guard and observe what Allah has made compulsory for him to do.

Then, in this way he will get forgiveness, protection from the Fire, and acceptance of his fasting and Qiyam (i.e. night prayers).

There are other issues which may be not clear or unknown to the people One of them is: a person should fast with firm belief and intention of reward; and not as a show-off or for reputation, or in imitation of other people; rather he should fast on the basis of his belief that Allah has made it obligatory for him to fast, and in hope of reward from Allah. Likewise, passing the night in prayer should be done with full confidence and in the hope of reward for it;  and not for any other reason.
In this sense, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said:
“Whoever fasts in Ramadan with firm belief and hope of reward, gets his past sins forgiven.

And whoever stood for prayer at night with firm belief and in hope of reward, gets his past sins forgiven; and whoever stood for prayer at the nights of Qadr (Decree) with firm belief and in hope of reward, gets his past sins forgiven.”

There are certain problems which some people face during  their  fasting  like  being wounded, or nose-bleeding, or vomiting or devouring water or petrol through his throat unintentionally; all these things do not vitiate fasting: and whoever vomits intentionally will vitiate his fasting: this is in line with the Hadith:
“Whoever vomits unintentionally, his fast is not disrupted, but  whoever vomits intentionally, his fast is disrupted and he has to make it up.”

The person who is Junub (impure after sexual intercourse) and has delayed  taking bath up to dawn, should observe fast. 

Similarly, the woman whose menstrual or labour bleeding has ceased to come before dawn and she delays in taking bath up to the dawn, she should also observe fast. The delay in taking bath up to the dawn to purify oneself from cultic impurity, is not prohibitive for fasting. However, one (he or she) should not delay oneself from purification up to sunrise; rather one (he or she) should  purify oneself and pray Fajr Salât before sunrise.

Moreover, a man should be prompt enough in this regard so that he may join the congregation for Fajr Salât.

Among the things which do not disrupt fasting are:
blood analysis and injection, if it (the injection) is not intended for (intravenous) feeding or nourishment. However, if possible, it is better to delay it (i.e. injection) till night.

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:
“Leave whatever you doubt in, for that in which you do not doubt.”

And the Prophet (peace be upon him)  also said:
“Whoever guards himself against suspicion, saves his Faith and honour.

Furthermore, among the issues regarding which the people  are  negligent is the composure in Salât (prayers), be it the  obligatory  prayers  or supererogatory ones: there are authentic Ahadith which prove that composure is one of the pillars of prayers  and  a  prayer  is  not  perfect  without  it. 
The composure consists in calmness and solemnity in Salât and not to make hurry in the postures of Salât till  the  vertebral  columns  are  set  right.  Many  a people pray in Tarawih prayer in a manner that they do not understand it nor are they tranquil in it. They actually move hurriedly back and forth like pecking.

Such prayer is imperfect and the person praying does not get reward for it.

Another  point  regarding  which  people  have misconception  is  the  number of Raka‘at for Tarawih prayer:
some  people  think,  it  is  not  proper to perform Tarawih prayer less than twenty Rak‘a; others think, it should not go beyond eleven or thirteen Rak‘a. All these are  mere  thoughts  or  guessworks  on  wrong  premise; actually  they  are  all  mistakes  that  contravene  all  the proven facts.

There are Sahih Ahadith of Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon  him) to the effect that the night prayer is unlimited and hence no limitation as to the Rak‘a‘, can be imposed upon it. Rather it is proven that the Prophet (peace be upon him) used to pray at times 11 Rak‘a, at times 13 Rak‘a, and at times he prayed  less  than these  during  Ramadan and also in other  days. 
When  he  (the  Prophet  (peace  be  upon him)) was  asked  about  the  prayers  at  night  he answered:
“The  night  prayer  should be  offered  by twos; and  when  one  is  afraid  of  approaching  the dawn, he should pray one Rak‘a; it will be the Witr  for  all  the  Rak‘a  prayed  before.”  (Al-Bukhari,  Muslim).

So the Prophet (peace be upon him)  actually did not limit  the  Rak‘a for the night prayer, neither in Ramadan nor in any other period of the year; so on this  basis  the  Companions  (may  Allah  be  pleased with  them)  in  the  period  of  Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) used to pray at times 23 (twenty-three) Rak‘a or at times 11 (eleven). 

And all these are proved from Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) and the Companions in his lifetime.  

And also some of the Salaf (pious predecessors) used to pray in Ramadan, 36 Rak‘a and 3 Rak‘a as Witr as well, and some others prayed 41.

This fact was mentioned by Sheikh-ul-Islam Ibn Taimiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) and also by other learned people. 

Ibn Taimiyah also mentioned that the issue contains wide scope: it is better to reduce the number of Rak‘a for the one who prolongs the recitation, bowing (Ruku‘) and prostration; and for the one who shortens the recitation, bowing and prostration,  it  is better to increase the number of Rak‘a.

According to the Prophet’s practice it is better to pray either eleven or thirteen Rak‘a either in Ramadan or in other days, since these are the numbers of Rak‘a the Prophet (peace be upon him) performed most of the times, and because it is most convenient for the performers of prayers and it carries solemnity and  tranquillity; and whoever exceeds this number, is not liable to be objected or blamed.
Again, it is better for the one who prays with the Imam, not to leave him until he finishes the prayer and this is in line with the Hadith of the Prophet (peace be upon him):
“Verily, if a man stands with the Imam during Tarawih  prayer  till the Imam finishes the prayer, he will get the reward of standing whole night in prayer".

It is desirable for all Muslims to strive during this holy month of Ramadan  with all kinds of  worship like  supererogatory  prayers,  reciting Qur’ân with meditation and understanding; most frequently reciting:
(1) Tasbih,  (2)Tahlil, (3) Tahmid,  (4)Takbir,  (5)Istighfar.
 
(1) Tasbih means to recite –  (Subhân Allah: Allah is glorified).

(2) Tahlil means to recite – (Lâ ilâhâ illa-Allah: There is no God except Allah). and other supplications as mentioned in Shari‘ah. 

A Muslim should also enjoin others for good deeds and prevent from forbidden acts; and also call upon people to Allah. He should also be more  sympathetical to the poor and needy persons and  strive to do good to the parents, and relatives; render hospitality to neighbours and attend the patients etc. 

This  is in line with the already mentioned Hadith of the Prophet (peace be upon him):
“...Allah sees (in this month) your competitions (for good deeds) and so He boasts to the angels about you: Show Allah what is better (than this) by yourselves; verily, the wretched are those debarred from Allah’s Rahmah (Grace)".

The Prophet (peace be upon him) is reported to have said:
“Whoever wants the approachment of Allah in this month (Ramadan) by any of his good deeds is like the one who performs obligatory prayer in other months. And whoever performs an obligatory  prayer  in  this  month  is  like  the  one who performs seventy obligatory prayers in other months".

The Prophet (peace be upon him)  also said:
“Umrah in Ramadan is like Hajj”–– or he said ----like Hajj with me".

 (3) Tahmid means to recite – (Alhamdulillah: All praise is to Allah).
 
(4)  Takbir means to recite –  (Allahu-Akbar: Allah is the Most Great).

(5) Istighfâr means to repent and seek forgiveness before Allah for  the past sins of the repentant person either by reciting the formulae described in Ahadith or with any words in his own language, sincerely and humbly.

There are numerous Ahadith and traditions which prove the legitimacy of competing and contesting in the various forms of good deeds in the month of Ramadan.

And He is the Watcher; may He guide us and all the Muslims to all the deeds which lead to His Pleasure, and accept our fastings and night prayers, and set right our state of affairs, improve our conditions and protect us from all kinds  of trials and afflictions. As we ask Him for the righteousness in our rulers, and to gather them on Truth, and for it He is the Guardian and the Powerful.
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Wassalamu Alaikum wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuhu.


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