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 The Final Hours of the Life of the Prophet

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل 
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مُساهمةموضوع: The Final Hours of the Life of the Prophet    03/12/16, 07:21 am


The Final Hours of the Life of the Prophet
1-   When the Muslims were offering the Fajr prayer on a Monday and Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, was leading them in prayer, suddenly the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ), lifted the curtain of ‘Aa’ishah's room and looked at them while they were praying, and smiled. The Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ), was delighted when he looked at the fruits of his many years of toil and sacrifice. He was looking at the ‎people of his Ummah (nation), who were devotedly performing congregational prayer both ‎in the presence as well as the absence of their Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ). This scene, which was an unprecedented success, delighted the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ), and assured him that the attachment between his Ummah and this religion and worship of Allah The Almighty would continue and that his death would not affect it. Hence, on seeing this, he was very pleased and his face was bright.

His Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, said, “The Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) lifted the curtain of the room of ‘Aa’ishah and started looking at us while he was standing. His face was extremely beautiful, and he smiled cheerfully. We were about to leave our prayer out of the delight of seeing the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ). We thought that he would come out and lead the prayer. However, he beckoned to us to complete the prayer and he let the curtain fall.”[Al-Bukhari]

After the prayer, some of the Companions left for their work and Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, visited his daughter ‘Aa’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, saying, “I feel that the sickness of the Messenger of Allah sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) has now gone, and today is the day of Bint Khaarijah [one of his two wives].” She was living at As-Sunh, so, he mounted his horse and went to his house there.

2-   To the Highest Companion:
The agony of death became severer on the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ), and Usaamah bin Zayd, may Allah be pleased with him, visited him while he was silent and unable to talk. He raised his hands towards the ‎sky and then placed them on Usaamah, may Allah be pleased with him, who understood that the ‎Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ), was supplicating to Allah The Almighty for him. ‎
 
‘Aa’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, held the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ), and made him rest his ‎head below her neck. ‘Abdur-Rahmaan bin Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, visited the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ), while he had a Siwaak (wooden toothstick) and was cleaning his teeth with it. The Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ), looked at it, so ‘Aa’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, took the Siwaak from her brother, cut it, chewed it with her teeth, and made it soft and then gave it to the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ), who cleaned his teeth with it as best as he could, while repeatedly saying: “Let me be with the Highest Companion.” [Al-Bukhari]
 
As he was dying, the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ), would put his hand in a cup of water which was close to him and wipe his face with it, saying:“There is no god truly worthy of worship but Allah. Indeed, the agonies of death are severe.” Then, he raised his hand and began saying: “With the Highest Companion,” until he died and his hand flopped.[At-Tirmithi] In another narration, the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ), said: “O Allah, help me overcome the agonies of death.” [At-Tirmithi]
 
In another narration, ‘Aa’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, heard the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ), before dying saying: “O Allah, forgive me and have mercy on me, and let me join the Highest Companion.” [Al-Bukhari]
 
It was also narrated that Faatimah, may Allah be pleased with her, the daughter of the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ), exclaimed, “Oh, the distress of my dear father!”He sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ), replied: “There will be no distress for your father after today.” When he died, she said, “O my father! You responded to the call of your Lord. O father! The Garden of Firdaws [the highest level in Paradise] is your abode. O father! We announce to Jibreel your death.”When he was buried, she said to Anas, may Allah be pleased with him, “How could you have put earth over [the grave of] the Messenger of Allah sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention )?”[Al-Bukhari]
 
3-   How the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ), left this world:
The Messenger of Allah, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ), left this world while he was ruling ‎all of Arabia and was feared by kings all over the world. His Companions ‎were willing to sacrifice their souls, children and wealth for him. Upon his death, the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ), left nothing except a white mule, his weapons and a piece of land, which he bequeathed to be given in charity. [Al-Bukhari]
 
Moreover, the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ), died while his (iron) armor was mortgaged to a Jew for thirty Saa‘s (handfuls) of barley.
 
The Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ), died at the age of sixty-three, just after midday on Monday, the twelfth of Rabee‘ Al-‎Awwal, in 11 AH. [Muslim]
 
The ‎day of his death was the darkest and saddest day that the Muslims have ‎ever witnessed, just as the day of his birth was the happiest day ever on earth.‎
 
Anas, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “On the day the Messenger of Allah sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) reached Madeenah, everything in it became illuminated. On the day he ‎died, everything in it became dark.”[At-Tirmithi]
 
After the death of the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ), Umm Ayman, may Allah be pleased with her, wept. When she was asked why she wept, she said, “‎I always knew that the Messenger of Allah sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) was going to die [one day]; however, I weep because the revelation has ceased.” [Muslim] ‎
 
4-   The calamity and Abu Bakr’s stance:
Ibn Rajab may Allaah have mercy upon him said, “When the Messenger of Allah sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) died, the Muslims were shocked, bewildered, and ‎confused. Some of them were stunned and became disoriented; others sat ‎down and were not even able to stand up; others lost their ability to ‎speak; and yet others were in complete denial, refusing to believe that ‎the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) had really died.”
 
Imaam Al-Qurtubi, may Allah have mercy upon ‎him, illustrated the seriousness of this calamity and its consequences, saying,
“The greatest afflictions a person can ever suffer from are those related to religion. The Messenger of Allah sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) ‎said: “If any of you is afflicted with a calamity, then let him ‎remember his affliction with my death, for indeed, that is the ‎greatest of all calamities.” [Al-Albaani - Saheeh]”
 
Indeed, the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ), spoke the truth because, until ‎the Day of Resurrection, no Muslim can be afflicted with a calamity ‎that is greater than the calamity of the death of the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ). It is no wonder, as the death of the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ), meant the cessation of revelation and the end of prophethood. After the ‎Prophet's, death, the first manifestation of evil was the apostasy of many ‎Arabs, which signified the first decline of goodness.‎
 
The death of the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ), stunned ‘Umar bin Al-Khattaab, may Allah be pleased with him, who began to threaten whoever claimed that the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ), had ‎died. He said, “He has not died. Rather, he has gone to his Lord, ‎just like Moosa bin ‘Imraan, may Allah exalt his mention, who returned to his people after remaining absent for forty nights. By Allah, the ‎Messenger of Allah sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) will indeed return [to us], just as Moosa ‎returned [to his people], and he will then cut off the hands and legs of ‎those who claimed that he had died."
 
When Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, heard about the death of the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ), he came from his house at As-Sunh by horse. He dismounted and entered the Mosque, but did not speak to anyone until he had gone in to see ‘Aa’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her. He went straight to the Messenger of Allah, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ), who was covered with a Habarah cloth (i.e. a kind of Yemenite cloth) and uncovered his face. Then, he bowed over him, kissed him and wept, saying, “Let my father and mother be sacrificed for you! By Allah, Allah will never cause you to die twice. As for the death which was written for you, it has come upon you.” [Al-Bukhari]
 
Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, then went out while ‘Umar bin Al-Khattaab, may Allah be pleased with him, was talking to the people. Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “Sit down, O ‘Umar!” But ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, refused to sit down, and continued speaking angrily to the people. Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, said, after praising Allah, “Whoever among you used to worship Muhammad, then Muhammad is dead, but whoever of you used to worship Allah, then Allah is Alive and shall never die. Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {Muhammad is not but a messenger. [Other] messengers have passed on before him. So if he was to die or be killed, would you turn back on your heels [to unbelief]? And he who turns back on his heels will never harm Allah at all; but Allah will reward the grateful.}[Quran 3:144]” On hearing this verse, ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “By Allah, when I heard Abu Bakr reciting it, my legs could not support me and I fell down at the very moment I heard him reciting it, declaring that the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) had died.” [Al-Bukhari]
 
Imaam Al-Qurtubi may Allaah have mercy upon him said,
Reciting this verse [in this situation] was the strongest proof of the bravery of Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him. ‎Bravery means having a steadfast heart at times of ‎hardship and calamities, and there was no calamity greater ‎than the death of the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ). Some people, including ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Messenger of Allah sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) had not died. ‘Uthmaan, may Allah be pleased with him, was unable to speak and ‘Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, did not come out of his house. Utter chaos was ‎about to break out, but Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, brought calm to the ‎situation when he recited this Quranic verse. ‎
 
May Allah have mercy upon Abu Bakr! may Allaah be pleased with him who helped save ‎this Ummah from many hardships and who solved many of the problems that ‎afflicted the Muslims. It was Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, who discovered the truth depending on proofs from the Quran and the Sunnah on occasions when no ‎one else (including ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with him,) did. Hence, every Muslim must acknowledge the status of Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, and love this close friend of the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ), because loving him is a sign of strong faith, whereas hating him is a sign of hypocrisy.

5-   Paying the pledge of allegiance to Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, as the Caliph:
The Muslims paid the pledge of allegiance to Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, as a Caliph in a meeting that was held at Bani Saa‘idah's brushwood shelter. This deprived the devil of an opportunity to disunite them and closed the door before any desire to manipulate them. They also wanted the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ), to leave this world with the Muslims united, organized and having a ruler to take care of their affairs, including making the necessary preparations to bury the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ).

In the future, we will speak about the caliphate of Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, when we come to speak about the era of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs, if Allah wills.

6-   Washing, shrouding and praying over the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ): 
‘Aa’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said,
When the people wanted to wash the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) they said, “We do not know whether we should take off the clothes of the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) as we do with our dead, or wash him with his clothes on.” When they differed, Allah The Exalted cast slumber over them to the extent that all of them put their chins on their chests. Then a speaker spoke from a corner of the house without anyone of them knowing who he was, saying, “Wash the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) with his clothes on.” So, they washed the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) with his shirt on.
 
They poured water on the shirt and rubbed him with it rather than with their hands.” [‘Aa’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, continued], If I had thought well about this matter, it should have been that no one would have washed him except his wives. (This was narrated by Al-Haakim may Allaah have mercy upon him in Al-Mustadrak, and he said that it is Saheeh according to the conditions stipulated by Imaam Muslim may Allaah have mercy upon him.)
 
The Messenger of Allah sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) was shrouded in three cotton garments of a white Yemeni material from Sahool, among which was neither a shirt nor a turban.[Muslim]
 
Then the Muslims prayed over the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ). Ibn ‘Abbaas, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “When the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) died, people came in groups and prayed over him; first the men, then the women, then the children and then the slaves. No man acted as an Imaam [leader] in the prayer over the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ).”[Ibn Maajah]
 
Ibn Katheer may Allaah have mercy upon him said, “This [praying over the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) individually without an Imaam] is unanimously agreed-upon.”
 
7-   Where, when and how was the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ), buried? And who buried him?
At first, the Muslims disagreed regarding where the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ), should be buried. Some of them suggested that he should be buried under his pulpit, others suggested that he should be buried where he would perform prayer, while others suggested that he should be buried at Al-Baqee‘. However, Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, settled this issue when he related to the Muslims what he had heard from the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ), regarding this. ‘Aa’ishah and Ibn ‘Abbaas, may Allah be pleased with them, said, “When the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) died and was washed, the Muslims differed regarding where they should bury him. However, Abu Bakr said, ‘I still remember what I heard from the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) on this matter. He said, “Allah The Almighty always takes the lives ‎of the prophets in the place where they should be buried.” So, bury him where his bed is.’”
 
Ibn Katheer may Allaah have mercy upon him said, “It was recurrently reported that the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) was buried in the western corner of the room of ‘Aa’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, to the east of his Masjid [Mosque]. Later, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with them, were also buried in this room.” The Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ), was buried in a grave containing a Lahd [niche]. So, scholars agreed that the Lahd (niche) and the Shaqq (trench) are permissible in Islam. However, the Lahd is better in solid soil, where dust does not collapse; otherwise, the Shaqq takes precedence.
 
AI-Albaani may Allaah have mercy upon him said, “Both the Lahd and the Shaqq are permissible since both of them were used during ‎the lifetime of the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) but the former is better, for Allah The Exalted ‎always chose the best for His Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ). As for the description of the Prophet's sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) grave, it was ‎slightly humped.” [Al-Bukhari]
 
Hence, the majority of scholars agreed that making graves slightly humped is recommended and better than flattening them, and there is great disagreement regarding this issue, but this is not the proper place to mention it in detail. However, Ibn Al-Qayyim may Allaah have mercy upon him conciliated the two opinions saying, “The graves of the Companions of the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) were neither high nor flat, which was the same condition of his grave and that of his two Companions [Abu Bakr and ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with them]. The grave of the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) and the graves of his two Companions were slightly humped and were neither built nor covered in clay. In addition, the grave of the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) was slightly raised above the surface of the ground.‎”
 
As for those who buried the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ), Ibn Is’haaq may Allaah have mercy upon him said,
 
Those who went down into the grave of the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) were ‘Ali bin Abi Taalib, Al-Fadhl bin ‘Abbaas, Qutham bin ‘Abbaas and Shaqraan [who was a freed slave of the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention )]. An-Nawawi, and Al-Maqdisi may Allaah have mercy upon them added Al-‘Abbaas, may Allah be pleased with him. An-Nawawi may Allaah have mercy upon him also added that it was said that Usaamah bin Zayd and Aws bin Khawlah, may Allah be pleased with them, were with them. The Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) was buried in a grave containing a Lahd, which was sealed with nine adobes, then they poured dust over it.
 
With regard to the time when the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ), was buried, many scholars said that he was buried on a Wednesday night. Ibn Katheer may Allaah have mercy upon him  said, “This is the predominant opinion of the majority of scholars, that is, he died on a Monday and was buried on [the following] Wednesday night.”
 
The death of the Messenger of Allah, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam (may Allaah exalt his mention), affected the honorable Companions greatly. Anas bin Maalik, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “We neglected our hearts even before we finished with the burial of the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam (may Allaah exalt his mention ).”
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Source:
http://www.islamweb.net/prophet/index.php?page=showarticle&id=160608


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The Final Hours of the Life of the Prophet
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