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 Islam: Its Foundations And Concepts

اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn
مؤسس ومدير المنتدى
أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn

عدد المساهمات : 24278
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Islam: Its Foundations And Concepts 9k=
Islam:
Its Foundations And Concepts
By
Dr. Muhammad bin Abdullaah As-Suhaym  
Translated by
Abdur-Raafi Adewale Imaam
Under The Supervision of
Translation and Publication Division,
Islaamic Propagation And Education Committee,
Muslim World League
Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah
Tel. 8150133, 8150144

1
In the name of Allaah, the Gracious, the Merciful
Translator's note:
All praise is due to Allaah May peace and blessings be upon the Messenger, his household and companions.

This book is undoubtedly a commendable attempt at showing the beauties of Islaam to mankind, drawing a comparison between this great religion and other world religions in spiritual, moral, social and intellectual aspects and acquainting mankind with its principles and fundamentals in a logical, unambiguous, convincing frank but gracious manner.

We would however like to call the attention of the reader to some points as regards the translation of some of the quotes and foreign names in this book. The author quoted some passages from the Bible and other books which are not originally Arabic. Though we believe that the proper academic method in translating these passages is to refer to their original sources since most of them are in English, we could not however do so because of their unavailability to the translator. It is therefore hoped that, translation of the passages rendered here are as close as possible in meaning, to the original texts.

As for the names of some authors mentioned in the Book in Arabic letters, we exerted efforts to know the correct spelling of these names in their original languages. But due to the fact that the author quoted excerpts from their books from secondary sources which are in Arabic, we could not have access to the original books; hence the names were transliterated from Arabic.

Equally, the names of foreign references mentioned in this book in English may not be the exact names given by their various authors. Most of these are translated from Arabic.

May Allaah make this book beneficial for all and reward its author abundantly in this world and the Hereafter.
Abdur-Raafi Adewale Imaam.


Islam: Its Foundations And Concepts 2013_110
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
http://almomenoon1.0wn0.com/
أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn
مؤسس ومدير المنتدى
أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn

عدد المساهمات : 24278
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Islam: Its Foundations And Concepts Islam-its-foundation-and-concepts-1-728
Author's preface
All praise is due to Allaah. We praise Him, seek for His assistance and forgiveness and we seek refuge with Him from evils of our souls and our misdeeds. No one can mislead whosoever Allaah guides and none can guide whosoever Allaah causes to go astray.

I testify that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allaah alone. He has no partner. I also testify that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger.

Allaah sent Messengers to mankind in order that people may not have any plea against Him after He has sent these Messengers. He also revealed Books as guidance, mercy, light and healing.

In the past, Messengers were especially sent to their people and entrusted with the preservation of their book. That was why their writings became forgotten and their laws became altered, because they were sent tot a specific nation on a limited period.

Thereafter, Allaah chose His Prophet Muhammad and made him the last of all prophets and Messengers. He says, "Muhammad is not the father of anyone among you, but he is the Messenger of Allaah and the last (end) of the Prophets."1

Allaah honoured him with the best Revealed Book which is the glorious Qur'aan; He took it upon Himself to preserve it and did not assign the obligation of its preservation to any of His creatures. He says: "Verily, We it is Who have sent down the Dhikr (i.e., Qur'aan) and surely, We will guard it (from corruption)."2

He also makes the Law of Muhammad the lasting one till the Day of Resurrection. He explained that the perpetuity of his Law necessitates the belief in it, calling unto it and being patient with it. Hence the path of the Prophet and his followers is that of calling to the way of Allaah with sure knowledge. While making this manhaj clear, Allaah says: "Say (O Muhammad): This is my way; I invite unto Allaah with sure knowledge, I and whosoever follows me. And Glorified and Exalted be Allaah. And I am not of the polytheists."3

Allaah commanded the Prophet to bear whatever harm he suffered in the cause of Allaah with patience and says: "Therefore be patient (O Muhammad) as did the Messengers of strong will."4

He also enjoins patience on Muslims,
1 (al-Ahzaab 33:40)

2 Al-Hijr 15:9
3 Yoosuf 12:108
4 Al-Ahqaaf 46:35

3
"O you who believe! Endure and be more patient and guard (your territory by stationing army units permanently at the places from where the enemy can attack you) and fear Allaah, so that you may be successful."1

In accordance with this gracious Divine Way, I write this book to invite people to the religion of Allaah, deriving guidance in doing so, from the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Messenger. I briefly explained herein the story of the creation of the Universe, the creation of man and how he was favoured by sending Messengers to him and situation of past religions. I afterwards made an introduction to Islaam as per its meaning and pillars. So, whoever is looking for guidance will find its evidences therein, whoever is looking for salvation may find that I have explained the way to it in this book, whoever desires to follow the track of the Prophets, Messengers and righteous people will find their path herein while those who turn away from their way only befools themselves and take to the straying path.

It is a matter of fact that adherents of each religion call others to it and believe that truth only abide in their religion. It is also a fact that adherents of each belief call others to follow their leader and extol him. As for Muslim, he does not call people to follow his ideology. His religion is the religion of Allaah with which He is pleased. Allaah says: "Truly, the religion with Allaah is Islaam"2

He also does not call people to glorify a human being, for all human beings are equal in the Religion of Allaah; nothing distinguishes one from another except piety. A Muslim rather calls people to follow the path of their Lord, to believe in His Messengers and follow His Law which He revealed to the last of His Messengers Muhammad and which He commanded him to convey to all mankind.

It's on this account that I wrote this book in order to call people to the Religion of Allaah which He is pleased with and with which He sent His Last Messenger in order to guide those who are looking for guidance and happiness. By Allaah!

No human being can have real happiness except through this religion and none can have rest of mind except by believing that Allaah is the only Lord (worthy of worship), that Muhammad is His Messenger and that Islaam is the only acceptable religion of Allaah.

Thousands of those who embraced Islaam have testified that they did not know real life until after they embraced Islaam and that they did never tasted happiness except under the shade of Islaam. Since it is a fact that every human being looks for happiness, peace of mind and truth, I prepare this work to help them achieve that. I pray that Allaah makes this work purely for His sake and let it be well-accepted and make it one of those righteous deeds that will benefit its doer in this world and the next.

I give permission to translate and publish this book in any language to whoever may want to do so with a condition that the person act honestly in translating it and to do me a favour by sending me a copy in order to avoid unnecessary repetition of efforts.

I equally request from whoever has any observation or correction either on the Arabic text of this Book or any of its translated versions to kindly send it to me through the below-mentioned address.

1 Aal 'Imraan 3:200

2 Aal 'Imraan 3:19

4
All praise is due to Allaah firstly and lastly, outwardly and inwardly. All praise is due to Him publicly and secretly. All praise is due to Him in the beginning and the end. All praise is due to him as much as can fill the heavens and the earth and whatever else that Our Lord may wish. May Allaah bestow peace and much blessing on our Prophet Muhammad, his companions and all those who follow his path till the day of reckoning.

The author,
Dr. Muhammad bin Abdullah bin Saalih As-Suhiem
Riyadh 13-10-1420
P. o. Box 261032 Riyadh 1342 and
P. o. Box 6249 Riyadh 11442


Islam: Its Foundations And Concepts 2013_110
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
http://almomenoon1.0wn0.com/
أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn
مؤسس ومدير المنتدى
أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn

عدد المساهمات : 24278
العمر : 67

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Where is the Way?
When man grows and starts understanding things, many questions come to his mind like: Where am I from? What will be my end? Who created me and the universe around me? Who owns and controls this universe? And other questions like these.

However, he is unable to provide himself with answers to these questions.

Even modern science is not capable of providing answers to them because these issues fall within religious domains. That is why there are numerous narrations and different superstitions and tales about them that only add to man's confusion and distress. 

It is impossible for man to get a satisfying answer to these questions unless he is guided by Allaah to the true religion that is capable of providing final decision on these and similar issues; for, these issues are among the divine secrets that only the true religion can give correct and accurate answers to and that is the only religion that Allaah revealed to His Prophets and Messengers. It is then incumbent upon man to learn the true religion and have belief in it in order to have his confusion and doubts removed and in order to be guided to the Straight Path.

In the following pages, I invite you to follow the Straight Path of Allaah and I present to you some evidences and proofs that you may carefully and patiently reflect on.
6
EXISTENCE OF ALLAAH, HIS LORDSHIP (OVER ALL CREATION), HIS ONENESS AND HIS BEING THE ONLY GOD WORTHY OF WORSHIP
Many people do worship man-made deities like trees, stones and even human beings; that is why the Jews and idolaters asked the Messenger of Allaah about the characteristics of his Lord. In reply to this question Allaah revealed: "Say (O Muhammad): He is Allaah, (the) One, Allaah, the Self-Sufficient Master (Whom all creatures need, He neither eats nor drinks). He begets not nor is He begotten. And there is none co-equal or comparable unto Him."1

He also says:
"Indeed your Lord is Allaah Who created the heavens and the earth in Six Days and then He Istawa (rose over) the Throne (really in a manner that suits His Majesty). He brings night as a cover over the day, seeking it rapidly, and (He created) the sun, the moon, the stars subjected to His Command. Blessed be Allaah, the Lord of all the world!"2

He also says:
"Allaah is He, Who raised the heaven without pillars that you can see. Then He Istawa (rose above) the Throne (really in a manner that suits His Majesty). He has subjected the sun and the moon (to continue going round)! Each running (its course) for a term appointed. He regulates all affairs, explaining the Aayaat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) in detail, that you may believe with certainty in the meeting with your Lord. And it is He who spread out the earth, and placed therein firm mountains and rivers and of every kind of fruits He made3 in pairs. 

He brings the night as a cover over the day…" until He says: "Allaah knows what every female bears and how much the womb falls short (of their time or number) or exceed. 

Everything with Him is in due proportion. All-Knower of the unseen and the seen, the Most Great, the Most-High."3

Allaah also says:
"Say (O Muhammad): Who is the Lord of the heavens and the earth? Say: (It is) Allaah. Say: Have you then taken (for worship) protectors other than Him, such as have no power either for benefit or for harm to themselves? Say: Is the blind equal to the one who sees? Or darkness equal to light? Or do they assign Allaah partners who created the like of His creation, so that the creation (which they made and His creation) seemed alike to them? Say: Allaah is the Creator of all things. He is the One, the Irresistible."4

While establishing for mankind His signs as evidences and proofs, He says: “And from among His signs are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon.

Prostrate not to the sun nor the moon, but prostrate to Allaah who

1 Al-Ikhlaas 112: 1-4.

2 Al-A'raaf 7:54.
3 Ar-Ra'd 13:2, 3, 8, 9.
4 Ar-Ra‘d 13:16

7
created them, if you really worship Him. But if they are too proud (to do so), then those who are with your Lord (angels) glorify Him night and day, and never are they tired. And among His signs (in this), that you see the earth barren, but when We send down water (rain) to it, it is stirred to life and growth (of vegetations). Verily, He Who gives it life, sure is Able to give life to the dead (on the Day of Resurrection). Indeed He is Able to do all things.”1

He also says:
“And among His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the differences of your languages and colours. Verily, in that are indeed signs for men of sound knowledge. And among His signs are the sleep that you take by night and by day…”2

While describing Himself with attributes of beauty and perfection He says:
“Allaah! None has the right to be worshipped but He. The Ever-Living, the One Who sustains and protects all that exists. Neither slumber nor sleep overtakes Him. To Him belongs whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth.

Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His permission? He knows what happens to them (His creatures) in this world and what will happen to them in the hereafter. And they will never compass anything of His knowledge except that which He wills.”3

He also says:
“The Forgiver of sins, the Acceptor of repentance, the Stern in punishment, the Bestower (of favours). None has the right to be worshipped but He. To Him is the final return.”4

He – may His praise be exalted- also says:
“He is Allaah, besides Whom none has the right to be worshipped, the King, the Holy, the One free from all defects, the Giver of security, the Watcher over His creatures, the All-Mighty, the Compeller, the Supreme. Glory be to Allaah!

(High is He) above all that they associate as partners with Him.”5

This wise and Omnipotent Lord who made himself known to His slaves and established for them His signs and proofs and described Himself with attributes of perfection had prophetic ordainments, human wisdom and nature testify to His existence, to His Lordship and being the only one having the right to be worshipped. I will –God willing- show that to you in the following pages.

As for proofs of His existence and Lordship, they are:
ONE: CREATION OF THIS UNIVERSE AND ITS WONDERFUL DESIGN
O man! All this universe that surrounds you; the heavens, the stars, the galaxies and the earth that is spread in which there are neighbouring tracts out of which different plants grow bearing all fruits, and on which you find all creatures in pairs… this universe did not create itself and could never create itself. It must then have a creator. Who then is that creator who created it in

1 Fussilat 41:37-39

2 Ar-Room 30:22-23
3 Al-Baqarah 2:255
4 Gaafir 40:3
5 Al-Hashr 59:23
8
this wonderful design and perfection and made it a sign for those who can see save Allaah the One, the Subduer Whom there is no Lord or deity worthy of worship beside Him.

He says:
“Were they created by nothing or were they themselves the creators? Or did they create the heavens and the earth? Nay, but they have no firm belief.”1

These two verses imply three questions:
1- Were they created from nothing?

2- Did they create themselves?
3- Did they create the heavens and the earth?


If their creation was not accidental and they had not created themselves or created the heavens and the earth; it should then be affirmed that there exists a creator who created them as well as the heavens and the earth. That Creator is Allaah, the One, the Subduer.

TWO: THE NATURE
All creatures are naturally inclined to believe in the existence of the Creator; to affirm that He is greater and mightier than all things. This inclination is more well-rooted in the nature than elementary mathematics and does not need to be proved by any evidence except for him who has an abnormal nature; a nature that has been exposed to circumstances that turn it away from what it should admit.2

Allaah says:
“That (Islaamic Monotheism) is the nature upon which Allaah has created mankind. Let there be no change in Allaah's (law of) creation. That is the straight religion.”3

The Messenger of Allaah said:
“Every child is born with natural inclination to Islaamic Monotheism and it is his parents who make him a Jew, a Christian or a Magian4 just as the animal gives birth to its young whole, wherein you find no mutilation.”

Then Aboo Hurayrah (who is the narrator of this hadeeth) said:
“Recite if you like (Allaah’s words): “That (Islaamic Monotheism) is the nature upon which Allaah has created mankind. Let there be no change in Allaah's (law of) creation. That is the straight religion.'”5

He also said:
“Verily, my Lord commanded me to teach you what you do not know of what He has taught me today: ‘All money that I endow a slave with is lawful (for him). I created my slaves naturally inclined to Islaamic Monotheism and it were the devils who came to them, led them away from their religion, made forbidden for them what I made lawful and enjoined on them to associate partners with Me in worship of which I did not send any proof.’ ”6


Islam: Its Foundations And Concepts 2013_110
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أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn
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THREE: CONSENSUS OF ALL PEOPLE
All past and modern nations are in consensus that this universe has a creator who is Allaah the Lord of all the worlds, that He is the Creator of the heavens

1 At-Toor 52:35-36

2 Majmoo‘ Fatawa Ibn Taymiyah 1:47-49
3 Ar-Room 30:30
4 Magians are those who worship fire and other natural phenomena. (AA)
5 Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim.
6 Ahmad and Muslim.

9
and the earth and that He has no partner among His creatures as He does not have a partner in His Sovereignty.

No belief has ever been reported from any of the past nations that their false deities took part with Allaah in the creation of the heavens and the earth.

Rather, they all believed that it was Allaah Who created them and their gods, that there was no creator or sustainer besides Him and that He alone owns the power to benefit or harm.1

Allaah informs us in the following verses of the idolaters affirmation of His Lordship and guardianship:
“If your were to ask them: ‘Who has created the heavens and the earth and subjected the sun and the moon?’
They will surely reply: ‘Allaah’. How then are they deviating (as polytheists and disbelievers)? Allaah enlarges the provision for whom He wills of His slaves and straightens it for whom (He wills). Verily, Allaah is the All-Knower of everything. If you were to ask them: ‘Who sends down water (rain) from the sky and gives life therewith to earth after its death?’ 


They will surely reply: ‘Allaah’. Say: ‘All the praises and thanks be to Allaah!’ Nay! Most of them have no sense.”2

“And indeed if you ask them, ‘Who has created the heavens and the earth?’

They will surely say: ‘The All-Mighty, the All-Knower created them.’ ”3

FOUR: THE REASON
Human reason inevitably confirms that this universe has a great Creator; for the sound reason agrees that this universe is a created thing that did not bring itself to being, hence, it must have an originator.

Also, man knows that he falls into crises and afflictions and when he is unable to prevent them or remove them, he faces the heavens with his heart and seeks for His Lord’s aid to remove his distress even though he may denounce his Lord and worship his idols in his normal days. This is an undisputable fact.

Even the animal raises his head up and looks at the sky whenever it is visited by an affliction. The Almighty Allah informs us that man, whenever he is afflicted with harm, hastens to his Lord and asks Him to remove the harm.

Allaah says,
“And when some hurt touches man, he cries to his Lord (Allaah Alone) turning to Him in repentance, but when He bestows a favour upon him from Himself, he forgets that for which he cried for before and he sets up rivals to Allaah.”

He also says about the idolaters:
“He it is Who enable you to travel through land and sea, till when you are in the ships and they sail with them with a favourable wind, and they are glad therein, then comes a stormy wind and the waves come to them from all sides and they think that they are circled therein, they invoke Allaah, making their faith pure for Him Alone, saying: ‘If You (Allaah) deliver us from this, we shall truly be of the grateful. But when He delivered them, behold! They rebel (disobey Allaah) in the earth wrongfully. O mankind! Your rebellion (disobedience to Allaah) is only against your own selves, - a brief enjoyment of this worldly life, then (in the end) unto Us is your return and We shall inform you that which you used to do.’ ”4

1 Majmoo‘ Fatawa 14:380-383

2 Al-‘Ankaboot 61-63
3 Az-Zukhruf 9
4 Yoonus 22-23

10
He also says:
“And when a wave covers them like shades (i.e., like clouds or the mountains of seawater) they invoke Allaah, making their invocations for Him only. But when he brings them safe to land, there are among them those that stop in the middle (between belief and disbelief). But none denies Our Signs but every perfidious ungrateful.”1

This Lord who brought this universe to existence, created man in the best form, embedded in his nature servitude and submission to Him, subjected human reason to His Lordship and His exclusive worthiness to be worshipped.

It is Allaah Whom all nations unanimously testify to His guardianship… as He should inevitably be One in His Lordship and worthiness to be worshipped. As He has no partner in creating His creatures, He should also have no partner in His worthiness to be worshipped.

There are numerous evidences for this,* some of which are:
1- There is only in this universe one God Who is the creator and the sustainers of all. None brings harm or benefit except Him. Had there been any other god besides Him, that god would have had his own work, creation and command and none of both would have allowed another to share the creation with him. Hence, one of them must have overpowered and subdued the other.

In that case, the subdued could not have been a god and the Subduer should be the real God with whom none can share the right to be worshipped just as none shares with Him His guardianship and lordship.

Allaah says:
“No son (or offspring or children) did Allaah beget, nor is there any god along with Him; (if there had been many gods), behold, each god would have taken away what he had created, and some would have tried to overcome others! Glorified be Allaah above all that they attribute to Him.”2

2- None deserves to be worshipped but Allaah Who created the heavens and the earths; for, man seeks to gain the favour of the Lord Who brings him benefit and prevents harm, evils and calamities from him and none but the one who owns the heavens and the earth is capable of doing all these. Let those who are searching for the truth read: “Say (O Muhammad) (to those polytheists, pagans, etc.) ‘Call upon those whom you assert (to be associate gods) besides Allaah, they possess not even the weight of an atom (or small ant), - either in the heavens or on the earth nor have they any share in either, nor there is for Him any supporter from among them. Intercession with Him profits not, except for him whom He permits.’ ”3

These verses and others sever heart’s affinity to other things besides Allaah through four factors:
One:
That those whom the polytheists worship possess not even the weight of an atom with Allaah, and he who possesses not a weight of an atom cannot benefit nor harm and therefore, is not worthy of being worshipped or being taken as Allaah’s associate in worship. It is Allaah alone Who owns them and controls them.

Two:
That they possess nothing in the heavens and the earth and they do not even have an atom weight of share in them

1 Luqmaan 31:32

* For more of these evidence, see Kitaabut-Tawheed by Muhammad Ibn Abdul Wahhaab.
2 Al-Mu‘minoon 23:91
3 Saba’ 34:22-23

11
Three:
Allaah has no helper among His creatures. Rather, He is the One who helps them in what is of benefit for them and drives away from them what harms them. For, He completely has no need of them; it is they who are rather who are in absolute need of Him.

Four:
That these so-called associates are not capable of interceding with Allaah on behalf of their followers and they will not even be given permission to do so. Allaah does not give permission to intercede except to His friends, and His friends also can not intercede except on behalf of the one whom Allaah is pleased with his sayings, deeds and belief.1

3- Systematic arrangement and precise execution of the affairs of this universe is the strongest indication that its controller is one Lord, one (King), beside Whom there is no other creator. As it is impossible for this universe to have two creators, so it is impossible for it to have two Lords.

Allaah says:
“Had there been therein (in the heavens and the earth) gods besides Allaah, then verily both would have been ruined.”2

Had it been assumed that there was in the heaven and the earth another god besides Allaah, they would have been ruined. Because, had there been another god besides Allaah, both would need to be autocratic and have right of free disposal. That would have then lead to contention and fighting and the ruin of the heaven and the earth would have occurred as a result. It is impossible for the body to have two controlling souls; if that happens the body will be destroyed – how then can it be imagined that this universe which is greater, should have two lords?

4- Consensus of the Prophets and Messengers: All nations agree that the Prophets and Messengers are the wisest, most intelli ent, best in morality, most sincere, most knowledgeable of what Allaah wants and the most rightly guided of all people, because, they received revelation from Allaah and conveyed it to people. And all Prophets and Messengers – right from Adam to the last Prophet who is Muhammad, peace be upon them all – have all called their peoples to the belief in Allaah and abstention from worshipping anything besides Him and that He is the only True Lord.


Islam: Its Foundations And Concepts 2013_110
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Allaah says:
“And We did not send any Messenger before you (O Muhammad) but We inspired him saying: None has the right to be worshipped but I (Allaah), so worship Me (Alone).”3

He also says about Nooh – Peace be upon him – that he told his people, “That you worship none but Allaah, surely, I fear for you the torment of a painful Day.”4

He – may He be glorified– also says about the last of all Messengers, Muhammad
“ Say ,
(O Muhammad): It is revealed to me that your God is one God. Will you then submit to His Will (become Muslims and stop worshipping others besides Allaah)?”5

1 See Qurratu ‘uyoonil-muwahhideen p.100

2 Al-Anbiyaa 21:22
3 Al-Anbiyaa 21:25
4 Hood 11:26
5 Al-Anbiyaa 21:108

12
This God is the One who wonderfully created the universe from naught; He created man in the best form and perfected his creation and impressed in his nature the affirmation of His Lordship and His exclusive right to be worshipped.

He lets him have peace of mind through his submission to Him and following His Path and He ordained it on his soul not to be at rest until it surrenders to its Creator and be in continuous contact with Him. He also makes it impossible to contact with Him except through His Straight Path which the honourable Prophets conveyed. He gave man intelligence which only becomes upright and functions properly when he believes in Allaah, Glory be to Him.

When one has an upright nature, a peaceful soul and a believing heart, one achieves happiness, security and peace in this world and the hereafter. But when man refuses all that, he will live in the alleys of this world disorganized and divided among its gods, ignorant as to who can benefit him or prevent harm from him. It is in order that true faith may be established in the heart and the ugliness of disbelief may be exposed that Allaah makes a parable – for parables bring meanings closer to understanding. He makes a parable of a man whose affair is divided between numerous gods and a man who worships his Lord alone.

He, may He be glorified, says,
“Allaah puts forth a similitude:
a (slave) man belonging to many partners (like those who worship others along with Allaah) disputing with one another, and a (slave) man belonging to one master (like those who worship Allaah Alone).

Are those two equal in comparison? All the praises and thanks be to Allaah! But most of them know not.”1

Allaah likens the slave who is a polytheist to a slave who is owned by different associates and over whom they all contend with each other. He is divided among them and everyone of them directs him and assigns responsibilities to him. He is confused among them and is always unstable. He is unable to satisfy their different and contradicting desires that tear his energy and directions apart.

He also likens the slave who is a monotheist to a slave who is owned by a single master. He knows what his master wants and the assignments he gives him. He is thereby comfortable and settled on a clear path. Both of these two slaves cannot be equal. For, one submits to a single master and enjoys the pleasure of uprightness, knowledge and certainty and the other one submits to different and disputing masters and is thereby punished and distressed. He is not stable on a condition and cannot please even one of them let alone all of them.

After proofs on the existence of Allaah, His Lordship and His exclusive right to be worshipped have become clear, we should then acquaint ourselves with His creation of the universe and man and know His wisdom behind that.

1 Az-Zumar 39:29
13
CREATION OF THE UNIVERSE
This universe with its heavens, earth, stars, galaxies, seas, trees and all living things are created from non-existence by Allaah – the Glorified and Exalted.

He says,
“Say (O Muhammad): Do you verily disbelieve in Him Who created the earth in two days and you set up rivals (in worship) with Him? That is Lord of the worlds. He placed therein (i.e., the earth) firm mountains from above it, and He blessed it, and measured therein its sustenance (for its dwellers) in four days equal (i.e., all these four ‘days’ are equal in the length of time) for all those who ask about (its creation).

Then He rose over towards the heaven when it was smoke and said to it and to the earth, ‘Come both of you willingly and unwillingly!’ They both said, ‘We come, willingly.’ Then He completed and finished from the creation (as) seven heavens in two days and He made in each heaven its affair. And We adorned the nearest (lowest) heaven with lamps (stars) to be an adornment as well as to guard (from the devils by using them as missiles against them). Such is the decree of Him the All-Mighty, the All-Knower.”1

He also says,
“Have not those who disbelieve know that the heavens and the earth were joined together as one united piece, then We parted them? And We have made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe? And We have placed on the earth firm mountains, lest it should shake with them, and We placed therein broad highways for them to pass through, that they may be guided.

And We have made heaven a roof, safe and well-guarded. Yet, they turn away from its signs.”2

Allaah created the universe for many great purposes. There are in every part of it great wisdom and dazzling signs. If you ponder over a single sign thereof, you will see wonders. Behold the wonders of the creation of Allaah in the plants in which almost every leaf, stem and fruit is full of benefit that human intellect cannot fully comprehend and understand its details. Behold the water courses of those tender and weak stems, which eyes can hardly see except by careful observation, how they are able to draw water from the bottom to the top and the water then moves in those courses according to their acceptability and capacities. It then breaks into particles that cannot be perceived by human eyes. Then behold, the fruit of a tree and how it moves from a stage to another like the invincible movement of the conditions of a foetus. You see a tree growing from a mere naked wood with no covering on it, then its Lord and Creator covers it with leaves in the most beautiful manner. He then brings out its fruit tender and weak after He has brought out its leaf in order to preserve it and make it like a clothing for that weak fruit so as to protect it against heat, cold and other harmful phenomena. He then provides sustenance for these fruits through their stems and water courses so that they can be nourished by that, as an infant is nourished by the milk of its mother. He then nurtures the fruits and develop them until they become completely ripe. He thereby brought out that delicious fruit out of that lifeless wooden-like particle.

1 Fussilat 41:9-12

2 Al-Anbiyaa 21:30-32

14
When you look at the earth and how it was created, you will see that it is one of the greatest signs of its Creator. Allaah makes it a resting place and as a bed, and subjected it to His slaves. He makes their sustenance, provision and sources of livelihood there and created therein for them ways and paths so that they can move about to meet their needs. He fixed it firmly with mountains and makes them as pillars in order to protect it against shaking. He flattens it, extends it and spreads it, makes it a receptacle for the living that brings them together on its surface and makes it a receptacle for the dead that bring them together in its interior after their death. Its surface is a place of dwelling for the living and its interior is the place of abode for the dead.

Then look at its revolving orbit, with its sun, moon, stars and zodiacs and behold how it continuously revolves around this world till the end of time in this order and proper succession and see the differences in the night, day, seasons, heat and cold which are results of these wonderful movements; and the benefits they give to all kinds of animals and plants and all that exists on the earth.

Then reflect over the creation of the heaven and take another look at it; you will see that it is one of the greatest signs of Allaah in altitude, expansiveness and stability. There is no pillar underneath it and there is no suspender over it but held by the infinite power of Allaah which holds the heaven and the earth lest they fall asunder.

When you also look at this universe, the composition of its parts and its best arrangement – that show the perfect omnipotence of their Creator and His perfect knowledge, wisdom and grace – you will find that it is like a constructed edifice in which all its tools and requirements are provided. The heaven was erected with its roof raised above it; the earth made like a place of rest and a carpet for its dwellers; the sun and moon which are like lamps illuminate the earth; and the stars which are its lanterns and adornment give directions to the traveller in the paths of the universe. The jewels and minerals that are hidden in the earth like prepared treasures are all made for the purpose that best suits them. All kinds of plants and animals are also prepared for what they are good for. Some animals are good for riding, some are good for milking; some are good for food and some are better used as guards. And He made man their controller and like an authorised king above all of them.


Islam: Its Foundations And Concepts 2013_110
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If you also ponder over this universe either in every respect or in a part of it, you will see a lot of wonders. If you deeply reflect and you are sincere with yourself and free yourself from the noose of whims and caprices and blind imitation, you will know with certainty that this universe was created by the All-Wise, All-Powerful and All-Knower, Who measured it in the best manner and arranged it in the best form.

You will also know with certainty that it is simply impossible that the Creator should be two; He is only One Lord beside Whom there is none other worthy of worship and that had there been any other god in the heavens and the earth, their affairs would have been corrupted, their order disrupted and their welfare broken down.

If you however insist on attributing the creation to others beside the Creator, what will you say of the mechanism that revolves around a river whose tools and composition have been perfected and excellently measured that the looker does not see any defect in it or its picture. This river is situated in the middle of a long garden in which there are different kinds of fruits that get their water from this river; and there is in this garden a caretaker who brings its disunited parts together and perfectly takes care of it so that nothing of it becomes defected and nothing of its fruits becomes decayed.

This caretaker then portions out its parts to the outlets according to man’s needs and necessities, giving each group what it deserves and portioning it out in this way continuously.
15
Will you then say that all this happened without the hand of any creator, who has freedom of choice and is a planner? Will you say that the existence of that mechanism and garden is just accidental without any creator or planner? Can you imagine what your reason will tell you if all these were to come to being accidentally? Can you imagine as to where your reason will direct you and counsel you about?1

The underlying reasons:
After all these reflections over the creation of the universe, we deem it fit to mention some of the reasons for which Allaah created these huge beings and astounding signs.

1. To subject them for man:
When Allaah decreed to create a successor on this earth that would be worshipping him and inhabit the earth; He created all these things for him, that he might have an upright life and have his affairs of this life and that of his final abode put right for him.

Allaah says,
“And He subjected to you all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth; it is all as a favour and kindness from Him.”2

He also says,
“Allaah is He Who has created the heavens and the earth and sends down water (rain) from the sky, and thereby brought forth fruits as provisions for you; and He has made the ships to be of service to you, that they may sail through the sea by His Command; and He has made rivers (also) to be of service to you. 


And He has made sun and moon, both constantly pursuing their courses, to be of service to you; and He has made the night and the day, to be of service to you. And He gave you all of that you asked for, and if you count the Blessings of Allaah, never will you be able to count them. Verily, man is indeed an extreme wrong-doer, a disbeliever.”3

2. To make the heavens and the earth and all that is in the universe proofs of Allaah's Lordship and signs of His Oneness. Because, the greatest thing in this life, is to affirm the Lordship of Allaah and His Oneness. And because of the fact that, it is the greatest matter, Allaah has established in its support greatest evidences and signs and proved it with the most convincing proofs.

So, Allaah created the heavens, the earth and all other beings to make them evidences for that. That is why statements like, “Among His signs” are mentioned in the abundance like in the following verses.

“And among His Signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth.”

“And among His Signs is the sleep that you take by night and by day.”

“And among His Signs is that He shows you the lightning, by way of fear and hope.”

1 This section is expunged from different places from the book, "Miftaahu daaris-sa 'aadat, p 251-269.

2 Al-Jaathiyah 45:13
3 Ibraaheem 14:32-34

16
“And among His Signs is that the heavens and the earth stand by His Command.”1

3. To make them evidences of the existence of the Day of Resurrection; since the life is two lives, a life of this world and a life of the hereafter and the life of the hereafter is the real life.

Allaah says,
“And this life of the world is only amusement and play! Verily, the home of the hereafter – that is the life indeed (i.e., the eternal life that will never end), if they but knew.”2

This is because the home of the hereafter is the home of recompense and reckoning and there is there eternal bliss for those who deserve it and eternal torment for those who deserve it. Since man cannot reach that home except after he dies and is resurrected; its existence is denied by those whose relationship with their Lord has been cut, whose nature has suffered a relapse and whose sense of reasoning has been damaged. 


It is because of this that Allaah established proofs and evidences in order that souls might believe and hearts might have conviction; for reproduction of the soul is much easier than its first creation and the creation of the heavens and the earth is greater than the reproduction of man.

Allaah says,
“And He it is Who originates the creation, then will repeat it (after it has been perished) and this is easier for Him.”3

He also says,
“The creation of the heavens and the earth is indeed greater than the creation of mankind, yet most of mankind know not.”4

He also says,
“Allaah is He Who raised the heavens without any pillars that you can see.

Then, He rose above the Throne (really in a manner that suits His Majesty). He has subjected the sun and the moon (to continue going round)! Each running (its course) for a time appointed. He regulates all affairs, explaining the proofs in detail, that you may believe with certainty in the meeting with your Lord.”5

After all this O man! If all this universe has been subjected to you and all its signs and proofs have been shown to you, you will testify that there is no Lord worthy of worship except Allaah Alone Who has no partner. When you have known that your resurrection and life after death is easier than the creation of the heavens and the earth, that you shall meet your Lord Who will call you to account for your deeds and you have known that all this universe worships its Lord that all His creatures glorify their Lord with praises as confirmed by Allaah, “Whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth glorifies Allaah, the King (of everything), the Holy, the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.”6

1 Ar-Room 30:22-25

2 Al-Ankaboot 29:64
3 Ar-Room 30:27
4 Ghaafir 40:57
5 Ar-Ra‘d 13:2
6 Al-Jumu‘ah 62:1

17
That, they all prostrate for His Majesty as He says,
“See you not that to Allaah prostrates whoever is in the heavens and whoever is on the earth, and the sun, and the moon and the stars, and the mountains, and the trees, and the moving living creatures and many of mankind? But there are many (men) on whom the punishment is justified. And whomsoever Allaah disgraces none can honour him. Verily, Allaah does what He wills.”1

Even these beings worship their Lord in a way that suits them as explained by Allaah in this verse,

“See you not that Allaah, He it is Whom glorify whatsoever is in the heavens and the earth, and the birds with wings out-spread (in flight). Of each one He knows indeed his prayer and his glorification [for every one knows his prayer and his glorification].”2

If your whole body does actually work in order according to the decree of Allaah and His regulation:
the heart, the lungs, the liver and all other parts of the body submit and surrender to their Lord… Will your optional decision after all this be between belief in your Lord and disbelief in Him? Will your decision be antipathy towards and deviation from this blessed path of the world around you and even of your body?


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Actually, the completely sane man will consider himself far above choosing antipathy and deviation in the vastness of this great universe.

1 Al-Hajj 22:18

2 An-Noor 24:41

18
Creating And Honouring Man
It was a decision of Allaah to create a creature that could inhabit this universe and His choice fell on man. It is also in accordance with His Divine Wisdom that the matter from which man was created was the earth. He originated his creation from clay and then moulded him on this beautiful shape that he has now. When he has become completely perfect in that shape, He breathed life into him through His Spirit (Angel Jibreel -Gabriel) and He made him become man in the best form; provided him with the ability to hear, see, move and speak. 


Then his Lord made him live in Paradise, taught him all that he needed to know, made lawful for him all that was in Paradise and forbade him from a single tree – as a test for him.

Allaah wanted to show man's position and standing; so He commanded His Angels to prostrate for him. All of the Angels prostrated but Satan arrogantly and obstinately refused to prostrate. So Allaah became angry with him for his disobedience and expelled him from His Mercy because of his arrogance. Satan asked Allaah to extend his life and give him respite till the Day of Resurrection.

So, Allaah extended his life till the Day of Resurrection.

Satan became envious of Adam because of the preference he and his children were given over him. He swore by His Lord that he would mislead all the children of Adam, that he would come to them from their front and rear, and from their left and from their right except the sincere, pious and truthful slaves of Allaah among them, for such Allaah has protected against the evil plans of Satan. Allaah warned Adam of the evil plan of Satan, but Satan tempted Adam and his wife Hawwa in order to get them out of Paradise and to uncover for them that which was hidden from them of their private parts. He swore by Allaah to them that he was a sincere well-wisher for them and that Allaah had not forbidden them from that tree save they should become angels or become of the immortals.

Having been influenced by the deception of Satan, Adam and Hawwa ate of the forbidden tree and the first punishment that afflicted them for their disobedience of Allaah’s command was that, which that was hidden from them of their private parts became exposed and Allaah reminded them of His warning about the tricks of Satan.

Adam then sought for the forgiveness of his Lord. So Allaah forgave Him, accepted his repentance, chose him and guided him. He then ordered him to descend from the Paradise where he was living, to the earth wherein there was his abode and his enjoyment for a time. He also told him that it was from earth that he was created, that on it he would live and die and that it is from it that he would be resurrected.

Adam and his wife Hawwa then descended to the earth and their children procreated and they all used to worship Allaah, because their father Adam was a Prophet. Allaah tells us this story in the glorious Qur’aan where He says, “And surely We created you (your father Adam) and then gave you shape, then We told the angels, ‘Prostrate to Adam’, and they prostrated except Iblees (Satan), he refused to be of those who prostrate. (Allaah) said, ‘What prevented you (O Iblees) that you did not prostrate when I commanded you?’

Iblees said, ‘I am better than him (Adam), You created me from fire and You created him from clay.’ Allaah said, ‘(O Iblees) get down from this (Paradise),
19
it is not for you to be arrogant here. Get out, for you are of those humiliated and disgraced.’ (Iblees) said, ‘Allow me respite till the Day they are raised up.’

Allaah said, ‘You are of those allowed respite…’ ”1

Consider the greatness of Allaah’s work in man. He created him in the best form, clothed him with traits of honour like intellect, knowledge, eloquence, art of speaking, beautiful figure, moderate body, ability to acquire knowledge through analogical deduction and thinking and ability to acquire noble characteristics like, righteousness, acts of obedience and submission to Allaah.

Far is his condition while he was just a drop of sperm kept in the womb of his mother from his creation while the Angel will enter upon him in the Paradise.

“So blessed be Allaah, the Best of Creators.”2

This world is a village and man is its inhabitant. All is preoccupied because of him and all is made to work for his interests. All other creatures are made to serve him and provide for his needs. The angels are charged to protect him during day and night. Those of them who are charged with provision of rain and plants strive to provide him with his sustenance; orbits are made to surrender to him and revolve in his services; the sun, moon and stars are all subjected to move in line with his time reckoning and for the betterment of his food arrangement.

The aerial world with its winds, clouds, birds and all that it contains is also subjected to him. So is the lower world with all its seas and rivers, its trees and fruits, its plants and animals and all that is in it.

Allaah says,
“Allaah is he Who has created the heavens and the earth and sends down water (rain) from the sky, and thereby brought forth fruits as provisions for you; and he has made the ship to be of service to you, that may sail through the sea by His Command; and He has made rivers also to be of service to you.

And He has made the sun and the moon, both constantly pursuing their courses, to be of service to you; and He has made the night and the day, to be of service to you. And He gave you all that you asked for, and if you count the blessings of Allaah, never will you be able to reckon them. Verily, man is indeed an extreme wrong-doer, a disbeliever.”3

To complete His honour on man, He created for him all that he needs in his worldly life and all that he needs that can make him attain the highest positions in the Hereafter. He as such, revealed to him His Books and sent to him His Messengers explaining to him the Law of Allaah and calling him unto it.

Then Allaah created for him from his own self – meaning from Adam himself – a wife, so that he might enjoy the pleasure of living with her, in response to his natural needs, be it psychological, intellectual and physical.

He then found with her comfort, tranquillity and stability and both of them found in their togetherness peace, contentedness, love and mercy; because of their physical, psychological and nervous composition, both of them are made to respond to the desires of each other and both are made to be in harmony in the process of producing new generations.

The souls of both are enriched with these feelings and their relationship is filled with comfort for the soul and nerves, peace for the body and mind, stability for the life and subsistence, familiarity for souls and conscience and a tranquillity for the man and woman on an equal basis.

Allaah then chose the believers among mankind and made them his friends. He made them obey Him and work for Him according to his Laws in order to make them qualify to live in His Paradise. He chose among them Prophets,

1 Soratul A‘raaf 7:11-25

2 Al-Mu’minoon 23:14
3 Ibraaheem 14:32-34

20
Messengers, saints and martyrs and blessed then in this world with the best favour that human souls can enjoy: worshipping Allaah, obeying Him and supplicating to him. He also distinguished them with great favours – that others cannot get – among which are: peace, tranquillity and happiness, and greater than all this is the fact that they know the truth that was brought by the Messengers and believe in it.

Allaah then keeps for them – in the Hereafter – the everlasting bliss and great success that befit His generosity, glory be to Him. He will also reward their belief in Him and their sincerity to Him and will give them more out of His Bounty.

The position of woman:
In Islaam, the woman is accorded a high position which she was not accorded in any of the previous religions and which no nation will accord her but Islaam.

This is because, the honour that Islaam conferred on mankind is shared by both man and woman on equal basis. Mankind are equal before rules of Allaah in this world as they will be equal as regards His reward and recompense on the Last Day.

Allaah says,
“And indeed, We have honoured the children of Adam.”1

He also says,
“There is a share for men and a share for women from what is left by parents and those nearest related.”2

“And they (women) have rights (over their husbands as regards living expenses) similar (to those of their husbands) over them (as regards obedience and respect) to what is reasonable.”3

“The believers, men and women are auliya (helpers, supporters, friends, protectors) of one another.”4


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“And your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him. And that you be dutiful to your parents. If one of them or both of them attain old age in your life, say not to them a word of disrespect, nor shout at them but address them in terms of honour. And lower unto them a wing of submission and humility through mercy, and say; ‘My Lord! Bestow on them Your Mercy as they did bring me up when I was young.’5

“So their Lord accepted their supplication (saying); ‘Never will I allow to be lost the work of any of you, be he male or female.’6

“Whoever works righteousness – whether male or female – while he or she is a true believer (of Islaamic monotheism) verily, to him we will give a good life (in this world with respect, contentment and lawful provision), and we shall pay them certainly a reward in proportion to the best of what they used to do.’7

‘And whoever does righteous good deeds, male or female, and is a true believer (in the Oneness of Allaah), such will enter paradise and not the least

1 Al-Nisaa 17:70.

2 An-Nisaa 4: 7
3 Al-Baqarah 2: 228
4 At-Tawbah 9:71
5 Al-Israa 17: 23-24.
6 Aal-Imraan 3:195
7 An-Nahl 16: 97

21
injustice, even to the size of a speck on the back of a date-stone, will be done to them.’1

This honour that the woman enjoys in Islaam has no equal in any other religion, creed or law. Roman civilization had had it established that woman should be a slave and a subordinate of man and that she should absolutely has no rights at all. There was even a great conference in Rome where affairs of the woman were discussed. The conclusion reached at the conference was that, the woman was a lifeless being and as such could not have share in the life of the hereafter and that she was impure.

In Athens, woman used to be regarded as a scraps. She would be sold and bought like any other commodity and she was being regarded an abomination of Satan's handiwork.

According to the ancient Indian statutes, the plague, death, hell, poison of serpents and fire are all better than woman. Her right to live used to end with the death of her husband – who was regarded as her master. When she saw the corpse of her husband being burnt, she must throw herself into it and if she did not, she would be accursed.

As for Judaism, the following judgement was passed on her in the Old Testament.

“I moved around with my heart in order to know, search and look for wisdom and intelligence, and in other to know that evil is ignorance and that stupidity is madness. And I found that worse than death is woman who is a snare and her heart is like a shoelace and her hands are shackles."2

Such was the condition of woman in the ancient times. As for medieval and contemporary times, the following events explain that.

The Danish writer, Wieth Kordsten explained the position of the Catholic Church as regards woman when he said, “During the medieval times, the concern that was had for European woman was very limited and this is in conformity with the view of the Catholic creed that used to regard woman as a second-class human being.”

In France, a conference was held in the year 586 A.D. where the issue of woman was discussed as to whether she should be regarded as a human being or not. At the end of the discussion, the discussants concluded that she was a human being but that she was created for the service of man.

In French law, article 217 says; “The married woman- even if her marriage is based on separation between her right of ownership and that of her husbandshould not give anyone ownership of anything of her property with or without compensation except with the participation of her husband in the transaction or his written consent to that.”

1 An-Nisaa 4: 124

2 Sifrul jaami 'ah 7:25-26. It is known that the Old Testament is hallowed and believed in by both the Christians and the Jews.


Note:
The two verses were translated directly from Arabic version quoted by the author because the translator could not find them in the Biblical version available to him nor could he find the name of the book in English. =Translator.
22
In England, Henry the VIII prohibited the English woman from reading the Holy Book, until 1850, women were not considered citizens of England and up till 1882, they had no personal rights.1

As for the condition of woman in contemporary Europe, America and other industrial nations, she is regarded as a common creature that should be utilized for commercial purposes, for she is a part of commercial advertisement. This has even reached a situation where she is stripped naked in order to advertise commodities on her body. Her body and honour have become desecrated based on regulations laid down by men in order to make her an object of enjoyment everywhere.

The contemporary woman is an abject of care and attention as long as she is able to give out her wealth, intelligence and body. But when she becomes old and loses her means of giving, the society individually and collectively abandons her and she lives lonely in her house or in the sanatorium.

Compare the above – although they cannot be equal – with what the Noble Qur'aan says, “The believers men and women are friends of one another.”2

“And they (woman) have rights (over their husbands) similar (to those of their husbands) over them.”3

“And your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him. And that you be dutiful to your parents. If one of them or both of them attain old age in your life, say not to them a word of disrespect, nor shout at them but address them in terms of honour. And lower unto them the wing of submission and humility through mercy, and say: ‘My Lord! Bestow on them your mercy as they did bring me up when I was young.’4

While Allaah honours woman, He makes it clear to all mankind that He created her to be mother, wife, daughter and sister; and ordained for these roles, special regulations that are peculiar to her.

1 Silsilatu muqaaranatil adyaan – Dr. Ahmad Shalaby 3/210-213

2 At-Tawbah 9: 71
3 Al-Baqarah 2: 229
4 Al-Israa 17: 23-24

23
Why was man created?
It has been discussed in the previous chapter that, Allaah created Adam and created for him his wife, Hawwa and made them live in Paradise. Then Adam disobeyed his Lord and later sought for His forgiveness. Allaah then accepted his repentance and guided him. 


Allaah then ordered him to go out of the Paradise and descend unto the earth. Allaah, glory be Him and He be exalted has in that, a wisdom which human intelligence can not perceive and which their tongue can not describe. We are going to mention here some of those wisdoms and underlying reasons.

1. That Allaah created the creation for His worship. That is the purpose of creating them.
He says,
“And I created not the jinn and mankind except that they should worship Me.”1

It is also known that the perfection of the worship that is required of man can not take in the abode of bliss and eternity but in the abode of trials and tribulation. The abode of eternity is that of bliss, not that of examination and commandments.

2. Allaah wanted to take among mankind Prophets, Messengers, friend and martyrs whom He would love and who would love Him.
He then left them alone with his enemies and put them to trial by them. So when they preferred Him above all other things and sacrificed their lives and properties in order to gain His pleasure and love, they attained of His love and pleasure what they could not have attained without that initially. So the status of prophethood and martyrdom is of the best degrees before Allaah and could not have attained that except by the way decreed by Allaah that Aadam and his offspring had to descend to the earth.

3. Allaah is the only True and Evident King.
The King is the One Who commands and forbids; rewards and punishes; disgraces and honours; strengthens and debases. Allaah’s sovereignty therefore necessitates that he sends Adam and his offspring to an abode in which the rules of sovereignty will be implemented on them and then move them to an abode where there is reward for all that they did.

4. Allaah created Adam from a handful of all soils of the earth;
and there is good and bad and low and high in the land. Allaah knows that there are among – the children of Adam – those who are unsuitable to stay with Him in His house, therefore, He made Adam descend to an abode where He distinguishes between the good and bad ones. Then Allaah chose for them two distinct abodes: He made good ones dwellers of His Abode (made them enter Paradise), and made the bad ones dwellers of the abode of misery (Hell-Fire).

5. To Allaah belong the Beautiful Names. Among His Names are: Al- Ghafoor (the Oft-Forgiving), Ar-Raheem (the Most-Gracious). 
Al-Afuww (Oft- Pardoning), An-Haleem (Most-Forbearing). Since the impacts of these names must manifest, the Wisdom of Allaah necessitates that Adam and his children must descend to an abode where the impacts of the Beautiful Names of Allaah could materialise on them. So that He might forgive whoever He wills, have mercy on whomever He wills, pardon whosoever He wills and forbear for whosoever He wills and other different ways in which His Names and Attributes can be manifest.

1 Adh-Dhaariyaat 51: 56
24
6. Allaah created Adam and his children from a composition that is naturally inclined to good and evil,
responsive to the causes of lusts and temptations and to the causes of reason and knowledge. He created in him reason and lust and created in both necessary factors so that His Will might be accomplished and that He might show to His slaves His greatness in Wisdom, Might; and His Mercy, Kindness and Benevolence in His Authority and Sovereignty.

He then, out of His Wisdom sent Adam and his children to the earth so that the test might take place therein and impacts of man’s preparedness for these factors and his responsiveness to them might become manifest, and Allaah may then use that basis to award honour or disgrace to whom it is due.


Islam: Its Foundations And Concepts 2013_110
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7. Belief in the Unseen is the useful belief.
As for the belief in the seen, everyone will believe on the Day of Resurrection. If people were created in the Abode of Bliss (Paradise), they would not have attained the degree of belief in the Unseen that ends in enjoyment and honour. It is for this reason that Allaah sent them to the abode in which they could have opportunity to believe in the Unseen.

8. Allaah wants by that, to show His slaves on whom He has bestowed His favour,
the perfection of that favour and its greatness so that they might thank Allaah and love Him the most and have the fullest enjoyment of the bliss which Allaah has bestowed on them. Allaah therefore, shows them what He did to His enemies and the punishment that He has prepared for them. He also makes them witness the highest kinds of bliss which He has bestowed on them, so that their joy might increase. This is an aspect of completing His favours on them. Therefore, to make them achieve all this, He must send them to the earth, put them to test and then make whosoever He wills to succeed out of mercy and kindness from Him, and disgrace whosoever He wills among them out of His wisdom and justice, for He is All-Knower, All-Wise.

9. Allaah wants Adam and his children to go back to the Paradise while they are in the best state. So before they enter it,
He wants to make them taste of the hardship, sorrow and distress of the world so that the value of entering Paradise in the Hereafter will be great in their estimation, for it is the opposite of an object that shows its beauty.1

After the origin of man has been made clear, it is now appropriate to explain his need for the true religion.

1 See: Miftaah daaris-Sa‘aadah 1 / 6-11
25
MAN’S NEED FOR RELIGION
Man’s need for religion is greater than his need for other necessities of life. For, man must know the things that please Allaah as well as those that displease Him. He must also carry out activities that can bring him benefits and others that can avert from him harm. So, it is the Divine Law that distinguishes between the deeds that benefit and those that bring harm. That is Allaah’s justice in His creation and His Light among His servants and it is not possible for people to live without Divine Law with which they can differentiate between what they should do and what they should not do.

If man actually has a will, he must then know what he wants. Does he want what will benefit him or what will harm him? Does he want what will reform him or what will corrupt him? Some people know this naturally, some know it through application of their sense of reasoning and some yet do not know it except through explanation by the Messengers and their guidance.1

However the atheistic and materialistic thoughts may be widespread and adorned; and ideologies and theories thrive, individuals and societies will never do without true religion. For these ideologies can never provide for man’s spiritual and physical needs. And the more man goes deeper in them, the more he is convinced that they cannot give him security nor satiate his thirst and that the true religion is unavoidable.

Ernest Rinan said,
“All things that we hold dear can dwindle, and freedom of using one’s intelligence, knowledge and expertise can become worthless. But it is impossible for religion to be effaced. It will rather remain a living proof on the futility of material ideology that wants to restrict man into despicable narrows of the earthly life.”2

Muhammad Fareed Wajdee said:
“It is impossible for religious thinking to vanish, for it is the highest and noblest of human mind’s inclinations, not to mention the fact that it is an inclination that elevates man. Rather than dwindle, this inclination shall be increasing. Religious nature of man will always pursue him as long as he can discern what is beautiful and what is ugly and this nature shall continue to increase in him according to sublimity of his mental faculties and progress in his knowledge.” 3

So if man keeps away from his Lord, it is through the sublimity of his mental faculties and wideness of his knowledge that he recognizes the greatness of his ignorance about his Lord and what is due to Him, and his ignorance of his own self, what is good for him and what is harmful to him; what gives him happiness and what will cause him misery. He will also recognise his ignorance of scientific details like astronomy, science of galaxies, reckoning, nuclear sciences and so forth. It is then that the world will abandon the stage of delusion and arrogance to that of humility and submission and then believe that there is behind these sciences a knowledgeable and Wise One and that there is behind the nature an Able Creator. This reality will then force the impartial scholar to believe in the unseen, to surrender to the upright religion and to respond to the call of natural instinct. But when man withdraws from this path, his nature will relapse and he will come down to the level of dumb animals.

1 See At-Tadmuriyyah by Sheikhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah p. 213-214; and Miftaahu daaris-Sa‘aadah 2 / 383.

2 See Ad-Deen by Muhammad Abdullah Daraaz p. 87.
3 Ibid. 88.

26
We conclude from all the above, that the true religiosity – that depends on belief in the Oneness of Allaah and performing acts of worship according to His injunctions – is a necessary element of life, so that man actualizes through that, his servitude to Allaah, Lord of all the worlds and attain through that, happiness and safety from destruction, hardship and misery. It is also necessary for perfecting the theoretical aptitude in man. It is only through it that the intellectual hunger can be satiated, and its highest goals attained.

Equally, religion is a necessary element for purification of the soul and refinement of emotional power, for noble sentiments find in the religion an abundant space and a spring whose water does not dry up where noble sentiments find their goals attained.

It is a necessary element for the perfection of will power because of the support it gives it through great impetus and major means of resisting elements of despair.

In view of this, if there are some who say that man is civil by nature, we must also say: “Man is religious by nature”, for man has two powers: scientific speculative power and will power. His complete happiness depends on perfecting his scientific and will power and the perfection of his scientific power cannot take place except by knowing the following:
1. Knowing the True Lord Who is the Creator and the Provider; Who created man from nothingness and bestowed on him favours.

2. Knowing His Names and Attributes and all that is due to Him; and the impacts of these Names on His slaves.

3. Knowing the way that leads to Him, may He be glorified.

4. Knowing the hindrances and harms that prevent man from knowing the way and the great bliss that the way leads to.

5. Having a real cognisance of your own soul, its needs, recognising what is good for it and what is harm to it, and knowing its qualities and defects.

It is by knowing these five things that man can perfect his scientific power. And perfection of his scientific and will power can not occur except by respecting the rights of Allaah upon His slaves and carrying out these rights sincerely, truthfully, according to the Sunnah of the Prophet and as a testimony of His favour on him. There is no way to perfection of these two powers except by His help. He therefore needs to be guided to the Straight Path which Allaah guided His friends.1

After we have known that the True Religion is the Divine support for different powers of the soul, we should also know that religion is the protective shield for the society. This is because human life cannot be alright except through mutual cooperation and this cooperation cannot take place except through a system that regulates human relationships, defines their obligations and guarantees their rights. This system is also in need of a curbing and restraining authority that can prevent the soul from violating the system, encourage it to preserve it, guarantees its relevance and prevents men from desecrating it.

What then is this power?
There is not on the face of this earth any power that can match the power of religiosity or even close to that in guaranteeing the respect for order, societal cohesion, stability of it’s system and harmonising the means of comfort and tranquillity in the society.

1 Al-Fawaaid 18,19.
27
The underlying reason for this is that, man is distinguished from other living things in that, all his voluntary movements and actions are controlled by an inaudible and invincible element. That element is faith which refines the soul and purifies the limbs. Man, is therefore, always controlled by a true or false belief. If his belief is correct, everything in him will be correct, but if his belief is corrupt, everything in him will be corrupt.

Faith is a spontaneous watcher over man; and it is – as noticed in all men – of two types:
- Belief in the value of moral excellence, human dignity and other ordinary concepts that high-minded people will feel shy to violate even if they were free from external consequences and material recompense.


Islam: Its Foundations And Concepts 2013_110
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- Belief in Allaah – may He be Glorified and Exalted – and the fact that He is Ever-Watchful of the secrets and knows all that is hidden; from Whose Commandments and prohibitions the Islaamic Law derives its power and before Whom the senses profusely feel mortified out of love for Him or fear of Him or both. There is no doubt that this type of faith is the stronger of both in exerting authority over human mind. It is also the stronger in resisting the tornadoes of whims and inconsistency of sentiments and quicker in leaving impacts on the minds of people and their leaders.

It is because of this that religion is the best guarantor for the establishment of relationships among people on the basis of justice and impartiality which is a necessity in any society. There is no wonder then that religion occupies in the human society the position of the heart in human body.1

If this is the position of religion generally – and what we see in today’s world is multiplicity of religions and creeds, where each group rejoices in its belief and holds tenaciously to it – what then is the true religion that can achieve for the human mind what it yearns for? And what are the general criteria of the True Religion?

1 See: Ad-deen p. 98, 102.
28
GENERAL CRITERIA OF THE TRUE RELIGION
Every adherent of a creed believes that his creed is the true one, and all followers of a religion believe that their religion is the ideal one and the most upright path.

When you ask the followers of adulterated religions or followers of man-made creeds about the proof for their belief, they argue that they found their fathers on a faith and are just following their paths. They then relate narrations and stories whose chains of transmitters are not sound and whose texts are not free from faults and defects. They only depend on inherited books whose authors, recorders and even their original languages and their sources are unknown. They are only mixed-up stories concocted together, magnified and inherited generation after generation without any scholastic verification of their chains of transmitters and precise checking of their texts.

These unknown books, narrations and blind imitations cannot be taken as evidences in matters of religions and beliefs. Or is it possible that all these adulterated religions and man-made creeds are true or false?

It is impossible that all these religions are true, for truth is only one and cannot be numerous. It is also impossible that all these adulterated religions and manmade beliefs are all from Allaah and therefore true. Then, since there are numerous religions and the true is only one, which of them is then the true religion? There should, therefore, be criteria for distinguishing the true religion from the false. If we find that these criteria fit a religion, we know that it is the true religion; and when all or one of these criteria is lacking in any religion, we know that it is a false religion.

The criteria by which we distinguish the true religion from the false ones are:
One:
That the religion must be from Allaah, revealed through an angel to one of His Messengers in order to convey it to mankind. For the true religion is Allaah’s, and it is He Who will recompense His slaves and take them to reckoning on the Day of Resurrection concerning the religion that He revealed to them. He says,
Verily, We have sent the revelation to you (O Muhammad) as We sent the revelation to Nooh (Noah) and the Prophets after him; We also sent the revelation to Ibraheem (Abraham), Ismaa’eel (Ishmael), Is’haaq (Issac), Ya‘qoob (Jacob) and Al-Asbaat (the offspring of the twelve sons of Ya‘qoob), ‘Eesaa (Jesus), Ayoob (Job), Yoonus (Jonah), Haroon (Aaron) and Sulaiman (Solomon); and to Dawood (David) We gave the Psalms.”1

He, may He be glorified- also says,
“And We did not send any Messenger before you (O Muhammad) but We revealed to him (saying): none has the right to be worshipped but Me. So worship Me.”2

Based on the above verses and criteria, any religion that is brought by any man and attributed to himself and not to Allaah is definitely a false religion.

1 An-Nisaa 4:163
2 Al-Anbiyaa 21:25
29
Two:
That the religion should call to the worship of Allaah alone; should prohibit Shirk (polytheism of any form) and all that can lead to it. This is because, the call to the oneness of Allaah is the primary mission of all Prophets and Messengers.

Every Prophet told his people:
“Worship Allaah! You have no other god but Him.”1

Three:
 It should be in agreement with the principles unto which all the Messengers call their people which are to worship Allaah alone and to avoid polytheism, unruliness to parents, killing of a person unjustly and all other immoral things, be they hidden or apparent. Allaah says, “And We did not send any Messenger before you (O Muhammad) but We revealed to Him (saying): None has the right to be worshipped but I, so worship Me.”2

He also says,
“Say (O Muhammad):
Come I will recite what your Lord has prohibited you from: Join not anything in worship with Him; Be good and dutiful to your parents; kill not your children because of poverty – We provide sustenance for you and for them; come not near to Al-Fawaahish (Shameful sins, illegal sexual intercourse) whether committed openly or secretly; and kill not anyone whom Allaah has forbidden, except for a just cause (according to Islaamic Law). This He has commanded you that you may understand.”3

He also says,
“And ask (O Muhammad) those of Our Messengers whom We sent before you:
‘Did We ever appoint gods to be worshipped besides the Most-Gracious (Allaah).’ ”4

Four:
 It should not be self-contradicting by commanding a matter and contradicting it by another. It should also not forbid something and then allow what is similar to it without any reason or prohibit something for some group and permit it for others.

Allaah says,
“Do they not then consider the Qur’aan carefully? Had it been from other than Allaah, they would surely have found therein many contradictions.”5

Five:
The religion should include what can preserve for people, their religion, honour, properties, lives and offspring through its commandments, prohibitions, deterrents and morals that it ordains to protect these five general factors.

Six:
 It should serve as a mercy for mankind and save them from their own injustices and the injustices they commit against one another through usurping others' rights and the general amenities or through misleading the weak at the hands of the strong. Allaah says while explaining the mercy that the Torah which was given to Prophet Moosaa entails,

1 Al-A‘raaf 7:73
2 Al- 21:25
3 Al-An‘aam 6:151
4 Az-Zukhruf 43:45
5 An-Nisaa 4:82
30
“And when the anger of Moosaa was calmed down, he took up the Tablets; and in their inscription was guidance and mercy for those who fear their Lord.”1

He also says informing us about the message of Prophet Eesaa, And (We wish) to appoint him as a sign to mankind and a mercy from Us.”2

He says about Prophet Saalih,
“He said, ‘O my people: Tell me, if I am (acting) on a clear proof from my Lord, and there has come to me a mercy (Prophethood) from Him, who will save me from Allaah if I disobey Him?’”3

He says about the Qur’aan,
“And We send down of the Qur’aan that which is a healing and a mercy to those who believe.”4

Seven:
 It should entail guidance to the Law of Allaah, and teach man the intention of Allaah by that Law. It should also be able to tell man his origin and his final destination. Allaah says about the Torah, “Verily, We did send down the Torah, therein was guidance and light.”5

He says about the Injeel (the Book given to Eesaa),
“And We gave him the Injeel, in which was guidance and light.”6

He says about the Qur’aan,
“It is He Who has sent His Messenger (Muhammad) with guidance and the religion of truth.”7

The true religion is the one that includes guidance to the Law of Allaah, gives peace and tranquillity to the mind, protect it from all insinuations, answers all its questions and resolves every problem.

Eight:
It should call to noble characters and deeds like truthfulness, honesty, modesty, chastity and generosity. It should also prohibit bad conducts like disobedience to parents, killing innocent souls, all kinds of immoralities, lies, injustice, aggression, stinginess and sins.

Nine:
 It should be able to provide happiness for those who believe in it. Allaah says,
Taa Haa. We have not sent down the Qur’aan unto you (O Muhammad) to cause you distress.”8

1 Al-A‘raaf 7:154
2 Maryam 19:21
3 Hood 11:63
4 Al-Israa 17:82
5 Al-Maaidah 5:44
6 Al-Maaidah 5:46
7 At-Tawbah 9:33
8 Taa Haa 20:1-2


Islam: Its Foundations And Concepts 2013_110
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It should also be in harmony with upright nature. “(This is) Allaah’s nature upon which He has created mankind.”1It must also be in harmony with sound reason, because the true religion is legislated by Allaah and the sound reason is created by Allaah and it is therefore impossible that the Law of Allaah and the creatures of Allaah should contradict each other.

Ten: It should lead to the truth, warn against falsehood, keep people away from error and lead them to the Straight Path where there is no crookedness.

Allaah speaks about the jinn that when they heard the Qur’aan being recited, some of them told others, “O our people! Verily! We have heard a Book (the Qur’aan) sent down after Moosaa, confirming what came before it: It guides to the truth and the Straight Path.”2

It should not call to what will cause people misery, as Allaah says about the Qur’aan, “Taa Haa. We have not sent down the Qur’aan unto you to cause you distress.”3

The true religion should also not enjoin on people what can cause them destruction. 

Allaah says, “And do not kill yourselves. Surely, Allaah is the Most-Merciful to you.”4

It should also not distinguish between its adherents on the basis of race, colour or clan. 

Allaah says, “O mankind! We have created you from a male and a female and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another. Verily, the most honourable of you with Allaah is that (believer) who is most pious. Verily, Allaah is All-Knowing, All-Aware.” 5

Therefore, the recognised criterion for giving people precedence in the true religion is piety.

After mentioning the criteria for distinguishing between the true religion and the false ones and citing evidences from the Qur’aan that these Criteria are general in the case of all truthful Messengers sent by Allaah, it is then very appropriate to mention types of religion.

1 Ar-Room 30:30

2 Al-Ahqaaf 46:30
3 Taa Haa 20:1-2
4 An-Nisaa 4:29
5 Al-Hujuraat 49:13

32
TYPES OF RELIGIONS
Mankind are divided as far as their faiths are concerned into two categories:
A category that have a Book that was revealed to them like the Jews, Christians and Muslims.
As for the Jews and Christians, the Books that were revealed to their Prophets have been lost as a result of their ignorance of what was in their Books; their taking of men as gods beside Allaah and the long time that had passed between them and their acquaintance with these Books.

So their priests wrote some books which they claimed to be from Allaah while they were not from Allaah but only wrong assumptions of liars and distortion of fanatics.

As for the Book of the Muslims (the Noble Qur’aan), it is the last Divine Book to be revealed and the strongest and most firm. 

Allaah Himself guaranteed its preservation and did not delegate that to mankind. He says, “Verily, We it is, Who has sent down the Dhikr (i.e., Qur’aan) and surely, We will guard it.”1

The Qur’aan is therefore preserved in the hearts of people and in the Book, for it is the last Book which Allaah has guaranteed for the guidance of mankind. He has made it a proof against them till the Last Hour and has decreed its perpetuity. He provides for it in every age those who will observe its limits and words, act by its law and believe in it. Further explanations about this Book will be given in a later section.2

There is another section of religious adherents who have no revealed Book from Allaah, even though they possess an inherited book which is attributed to the founder of the religion like Hindus, Magians, Buddhists, Confucians and Arabs before the advent of Muhammad.

There is not a nation that does not have some knowledge and carry out some activities by which their worldly interests are achieved. 

This is the general knowledge which Allaah endowed every human being, even animals; for the animal is also guided as to how to attain what benefits it like food and drink and to avert what harms it; and Allaah has created in it the love for the former and aversion for the latter.

He says,
“Glorify the Name of your Lord, the Most High, Who has created (everything) and then proportioned it. And Who has measured (preordainment for everything), and guided (i.e., showed mankind the right as well as the wrong paths and guided the animals to pasture).”3

He also says, informing us of what Prophet Moosaa told Pharaoh, “Our Lord is He Who gave to each things its form and nature, then guided it aright.”4

1 Al-Hijr 15:9.

2
3 Al-A‘laa 87:1-3.
4 Taa Haa 20:50.

33
He also informs us about Prophet Ibraaheem that he said of His Lord, “Who has created me and it is He Who guides me.”1

It is known to every sane person – who has the least reflection and sense of thinking – that adherents of religions are better in useful sciences and righteous deeds than those with no religion. There is therefore, no good thing found with non-Muslims among adherents of other religions except that the Muslims possess what is better and more perfect, so the adherents of religions possess what others do not possess.

For sciences and deeds are two types:
First:
That which is achieved through intelligence and reason like astronomy, medical sciences and vocations. Though adherents of religions and atheists are equal in possession of these things; the adherents of religions are better in them. As for those things that cannot be known through mere reason like theology and religious sciences, these are prerogatives of the followers of religions. There are among this kind of knowledge that which can be proved by logical evidences, so the Messengers guided men unto how logical evidences proof that; which is both logical and legal.

Second:
What cannot be known except through the information given by the Messengers.

This kind of knowledge and deeds cannot be achieved through human reason, like knowledge about Allaah, His Names and Attributes, the bliss that is in the Hereafter for whoever obeys Allaah and the punishment for those who disobey Him, the explanations on His injunctions and the information about the past Prophets and their peoples and so on.2

1 Ash-Shuaraa 26:78, See: Al-Jawaab As-Saheeh 4, Page 97.

2 See Majmoo’ Fataawaa Shaikhul Islaam 4 p. 210-211.
34

CONDITIONS OF THE EXISTING RELIGIONS
Great religions, their old books and ancient laws have become easy preys to frivolous and fraudulent people, an object of mockery for distorters and hypocrites and targets of bloody incidences and great calamities so much so that they have lost their spirit and shape. If their first adherents and prophets were to be resurrected now, they would surely have denied them and proclaimed to be ignorant of them.

Judaism* – today – has become a set of rituals and traditions with no spirit or life.

Apart from this, it is an racial religion peculiar to a particular race and carries no message for the world, nor any mission for the people or any mercy for mankind.

This religion has been afflicted in its fundamental creed which is its motto among other religions and nations. And it has been a noble religion while it was the religion of monotheism which Prophets Ibraheem and Ya‘qoob commanded their children to follow. 

The Jews had adopted many concepts from the beliefs of corrupt nations with whom they shared neighbourhood or under whose authority they had been subjected. They had also adopted a lot of pagan customs and traditions of these people.

This has been confirmed by unbiased Jewish historians. In Jewish Encyclopaedia, we can read in it what approximately means, "The prophets' wrath over the worship of images does indicate that worshipping idols and false deities had crept into the hearts of the Israelites and that they had embraced the polytheistic and superstitious beliefs.

The Talmud also testifies to the fact that paganism has a particular attraction for the Jews."1

The Babel Talmud2 – which the Jews extremely hallow and prefer to the Torah, was widely circulated among the Jews of the Sixth Century, and which contains a lot of strange manifestations of their simple-mindedness, absurd sayings, insolent behaviour towards Allaah, scorning the reality and gambling with religion and human intellect – shows the extent to which the Jewish community of this age has degenerated intellectually and religiously.3

As for Christianity*, it is also afflicted since its earliest days with distortions of extremists, alterations of the ignorant and paganism of the Romans who claimed to be Christians.4

* For further reading, see the book, “Ifhaam al-Yahood” by Samuel bin Yahya Al- Maghrabi.
He was a Jew who reverted to Islaam.
1 See Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. XLL. P 568-569
2 The word ‘Talmud’ means, ‘Jewish book of religious and moral teachings’. It is a compilation of footnotes and commentaries on their book ‘Mishna’ which means, ‘the law’ according to Jewish scholars of different generations.
3 Read for information, “Al-Yahood alaa Hasab al-Talmud”, by Dr. Rohlange and its translation from French to Arabic in “Al-kanzul marsood fee qawaaidit-talmood’’ by Yoosuf Hanna Nasrullaah.
* For details, read, “Al-jawaab as-Saheeh liman baddala deenal-maseeh” by Shaykhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah; “Izhaar al-Haqq” by Rahmatullaah Al-Hindee and “Tuhfatul-Areeb fee radd ‘alaa ubbaad As-Saleeb”, by Abdullah At- Turjumaan who was a Christian revert.
4 See "The Struggle between Religion and Science", (p.40-41) by the well-known European author Draper (Note: The translator does not know the actual name of this book in its original language nor the correct spelling of the name of its author because both were translated and transliterated respectively from Arabic).


Islam: Its Foundations And Concepts 2013_110
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
http://almomenoon1.0wn0.com/
أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn
مؤسس ومدير المنتدى
أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn

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All these distortions, alterations and paganism have become the heap under which all great teachings of Christ were buried and the light of Monotheism and sincere worship of Allah were hidden behind these clouds.

A Christian writer speaks on the extent to which the trinity had gone in the Christian society since the end of the Fourth Century after Christ:
"The belief that one God consists of three different godheads had penetrated into the inner life of the Christian world and its thoughts since the last quarter of the fourth century and had become the official recognised creed in all parts of the Christendom ever since. Also, the development of Trinity and its secret were not revealed until in the last half of the nineteenth century A.D."1

A contemporary Christian historian2 discusses in a book, “History of Christianity in the Light of Modern Science”, about the appearance of paganism in the Christian society in different forms and shapes and the Christians' diversity in adopting religious rites, customs and pagan heroes of nations and religions that are ancient in idolatry under the pretext of imitation, admiration or ignorance.

He said,
"Paganism has ended but has not been completely eliminated. Rather, it has penetrated the hearts and everything in it has been tolerantly allowed to continue in the name of Christianity and under its cover. 

Those who abandoned their gods and heroes took one of their martyrs and gave him the title of their former gods then erected a statue in his name. This is how polytheism and idol worship are transferred unto these local martyrs. By the end of that century, worshipping of the martyrs and saints spread all over the Christendom and formed a new creed that teaches that saints have divine attributes. These saints and hallowed men were thus made intermediaries between God and man and pagan festivals were given new names until the ancient pagan Sun festival was turned to Christmas in the year 400 A.C.”

As regards the Magians, they have been known since time of old to be worshippers of natural elements, the greatest of which is fire. They have lately adhered to its worship and built for it alters and temples so much so that fire houses have become widespread in all places in their country and all other religions and faiths disappear except fire worship and hallowing of the sun. The religion, according to these people has become mere rites and traditions that are practised in special places.3

The Danish author who wrote the book, “Iran during the reign of Sasanids”, describes their religious leaders and their functions, "These functionaries must worship fire four times in a day. In addition to this, they also worshipped moon, fire and water. They had an order that they should not let the fire die out or let the fire and water meet each other or let the metal rust, because they also hallow the metal."4

These Magians have practised dualism all the time and that has become their motto. They believed in two gods; god of light or god of good which they called “ahur mazda” or “Yazdan” and the other god is god of darkness or evil, and this they called: “ahur man”. The war and conflict are continuously going between both of them.5

1 See New Catholic Encyclopaedia, The Holy trinity Vol. 14 P. 295.

2 Rev James Houston Baxter, History of Christianity in the Light of Modern Knowledge”, Glasgow 1929 p. 407.
3 Read the book, “Iran during the reign of Sasanids” by Professor of Eastern Languages at Copenhagen University, Denmark, and a specialist on the history of Iran. See also, “History of Iran” by the Magian, Shaeen Makareus.
4 Iran during the reign of Sasanids, p. 155
5 Iran during the reign of Sasanids. p. 183-233.

36
As regards Buddhism, the religion that is widespread in India and Middle Asia, it is a paganism whereof its adherents carry with them idols wherever they go.

They build temples for these idols and erect the statue of “Buddha” wherever they go and settle.1

As for Brahmanism the religion of India, it has been popular with a lot of deities. Their paganism had reached its peak in the sixth century A.C. when the number of their deities reached 330 million gods.2 Everything according to Brahmanism has become wonderful and everything has become useful and a deity to be worshipped. During that age, the art of idol making became highly profitable and many idol stylists carved so many idols in different shapes.

The Hindi writer, C. V. Vidya, wrote in his book, “The History of Medieval Hindu” while discussing the era of King Harash (606-648 A.D.), which is the era that follows the advent of Islaam in Arabia, “Hinduism and Buddhism are equally pagan religion though Buddhism might have surpassed Hinduism in paganism. 

The origin of Buddhism was denial of existence of any Lord but it gradually adopted Buddha (its founder) as the greatest deity. It later on added other deities like Bodhistavas.

Paganism has reached its peak in India so much so that the name Buddha became synonymous with idol or statue in some eastern languages.” It is without doubt that Paganism has become widespread in the conemporary world. The whole world from the Atlantic sea to the Pacific ocean is greatly immersed in Paganism. The matter becomes as if the Christianity, the Semitic religions and Buddhism are competing in glofication and hallowing of idols like racing horses.3

Another Hindu said in his book, “The Prevailing Hinduism", that the art of making idols had not ended yet, but small idols continued to join the existing 'deities complex' in great numbers throughout different historical periods that they have become an innumerable and an uncountable thong of deities.4

This is the condition of the world religions. As for civilized countries where great governments were established, where many sciences flourished and which were the bedrock of civilization, industry and arts, they have become countries with no religions; countries that had lost their origin and power, in which there are no righteous reformers and teachers, where atheism is publicly proclaimed, corruption of all kind proliferated, all standards have been changed and the man has become valueless to his own self. That is why there are many cases of suicide, that all family links have been cut, social relations were put in disarray, the clinics of psychologists are jammed with patients and the market of magic tricksters were established. In these so-called civilized nations, man tries out of every enjoyable thing and follows every invented and innovated creed, seeking to satiate the demand of his soul, make himself happy and give himself peace of mind.

But all these enjoyments, and all these creeds and theories failed to achieve these goals for him, and he shall continue in this psychological misery and spiritual torment until he establishes relationship with his Creator and worships Him according to the way He is pleased with and with which He sent His Messengers. Allaah says, while describing the condition of the one who turns away from his Lord and seeks for guidance from others besides Him,

1 See “The Ancient India”, by Aishura Toba, a professor of Hindu Civilization at the University of Haydrabad; and “The Discovery of India” by Jawahar lal Nehru, the former Indian Prime Minister. p. 201-202.

2 See “Ancient India” by R. Dit, 3/287; and "The Prevailing Hinduism", by L.S.S.O. Malley p. 6-7.
3 C.V. Vidya: History of Medieval Hindu. Vol. I (Poone 1921)
4 See “As-Seeratun-nabawiyyah” by Abil Hasan An-Nadwi p. 19-28.

37
“But whosoever turns away from My Reminder (i.e., neither believes in this Qur’aan nor acts on its teachings). Verily, for him is a life of hardship and We shall raise him up blind on the Day of Resurrection.”1

He, may He be glorified, also informs us about the life of the true believers and their happiness in this worldly life when He says, “It is they who believe (in the Oneness of Allaah and worship none but Him alone) and confuse not their belief with wrong (by worshipping others besides Allaah), for them (only) there will security and they are the guided.”2

He Whose praise is great also says, “As for those who are blessed, they will be in Paradise, abiding therein for all the time that the heavens and the earth endure, except as your Lord wills; a gift without an end.”3

If we apply the criteria of the true religion to all these religions – except Islaam, we will see that they are short of all these criteria as it is clear from the above exposition.

The greatest element which all these religions are short of is monotheism. For their adherents have associated other gods with Allaah in worship in addition to the fact that these religions do not provide people with a law that can be applicable in all places and at all times and that can protect them, their lives, faith, honour, offspring and properties. These religions also do not guide people to the Law of Allaah which He orders to be followed neither do they give their adherents peace of mind and happiness, as a result of their inherent contradictions.

As regards Islaam, you will come to know in the following chapters that it is the true religion of Allaah which He is pleased with and which He has chosen for mankind as their religion.

At the end of this section, it is appropriate that we define the essence of prophethood and the need of mankind for it; and explain the foundations of the mission of the Messengers and the reality of the last and everlasting message of Islaam.

1 Taa Haa 20:124.

2 Al-An‘aam 6:82
3 Hood 11:108.


Islam: Its Foundations And Concepts 2013_110
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أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn
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أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn

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THE ESSENCE OF PROPHETHOOD
The greatest thing that man must know in this life is the knowledge about his Lord, Who created him from nothing and showered him with blessings. And the greatest purpose for which Allaah created the creation is to worship Him alone.

But how can man know his Lord as it is due? What are the duties and obligations binding on him? How can he worship his Lord? Man can find who will assist him during vicissitudes of life, provide for his needs like treatment for an ailment, giving some medicine, assisting to build a house and so on and so forth; but he cannot find among ordinary people who can make him know his Lord and explain to him how to worship Him.

This is because human intelligence cannot independently know what Allaah intends, he cannot even perceive the intention of his fellow human being before he tells him what he intends. How can he then know what Allaah means? Further, it is also because, this matter is only restricted to the Messengers and Prophets whom Allaah has chosen to convey the Message and to those who come after them among the rightly guided leaders and the heirs of the Prophet, who follow their way, take to their Path and help to convey their message.

For men cannot receive revelation from Allaah directly as they are unable to bear it. Allaah says, “It is not given to any human being that Allaah should speak to him unless (it be) by Revelation, of from behind a veil, or that He sends a Messenger to reveal what He wills by His leave. Verily, He is Most-High, Most Wise.”1

There should therefore be an intermediary and an envoy who can convey the law of Allaah to His slaves, Those intermediaries and envoys are the Messengers and Prophets. The angel will carry the message to the Prophet and the Prophet will convey it to the people. The Angels do not carry the message to men directly, for the world of angels is naturally different from that of human beings.

Allaah says,
“Allaah chooses Messengers from angels and from men.”2

The Wisdom of Allaah necessitates that the Messenger should come from the race of those whom he is sent to, so that they could understand him because of their ability to speak with him. If Messengers had been sent to mankind from among the angels, they could not have been able to face him or learn anything from him.

Allaah the exalted says,
“And they say: Why has not an angel been sent down to him? Had we sent down an angel, the matter would have been judged at once, and no respite would be granted to them. And had We appointed him an angel, We indeed would have made him a man, and We would have certainly confused them in which they are already confused.”3

He also says,
“And We never sent before you (O Muhammad) any of the Messengers but verily, they ate food and walked in the markets. And We have made some of you as a trial for others: will you have patience? And your Lord is Ever All-Seer (of everything).

And those who expect not a meeting with Us (i.e., those who deny the Day of Resurrection and the life of the Hereafter) said: ‘Why are not

1 Ash-Shooraa 42:51.

2 Al-Hajj 22:75.
3 Al-An‘aam 6:8-9.

39
the angels send down to us, or why do we not see our Lord?’ Indeed, they think too highly of themselves and are scornful with great pride.”1

He also says,
“And We sent not (as Our Messengers) before you (O Muhammad) any but men.”2

He also says,
“And We sent not a Messenger except with the language of his people, in order that he might make the Message clear to them.”3

These Messengers and Prophets possessed complete and perfect reason, sound nature, truthfulness in words and deeds, sincerity in conveying what was put in their trust, Divine immunity from all that could tarnish human conduct and physical appearances that are free from all things that are repugnant to sights and repulsive to sound human taste.4 

Allaah purified them in their persons and manners. They are the most-perfect in manners, purest in souls and most generous. 

Allaah combined in them good manners and excellent conduct as He combined in them deliberateness, knowledge, magnanimity, generosity, bravery and justice. By these qualities, they were distinguished among their peoples. The people of Prophet Saalih told him as Allaah informs us in His Book,

“They said:
‘O Saalih! You have been among us as a figure of good hope till this (new thing which you have brought that we leave our gods and worship your God (Allaah) alone). Do you now forbid us the worship of what our fathers have worshipped?’ ”5

He also informs us of what the people of Prophet Shuaaib told him,

“They said:
‘O Shuaaib! Does your prayers command that we give up what our fathers used to worship, or that we give up doing what we like with our property. Verily, you are the forbearer, right-minded.’ ”6

The Messenger of Allaah, Muhammad, was also popular among his people with the title “Al-Ameen” (the trustworthy) even before he received the revelation, His Lord describes him saying, “And verily, you (O Muhammad) are on an exalted (standard) of character.”7

The Messengers and Prophets are therefore, the best ones among Allaah's creatures. He selected them and chose them to carry His Message and convey it to mankind, and, “Allaah knows best with whom to place His Message.”8

1 Al-Furqaan 25:20-21.

2 An-Nahl 16:43.
3 Ibraaheem 13:4.
4 See: Lawaami’ul anwaar al bahiyyah Vol. 2 pp. 265 and, “Al-Islaam” by Ahmad Shalabee p. 114.
5 Hood 11:62.
6 Hood 11:87.
7 Al-Qalam 68:4.
8 Al-An‘aam 6:124.

40
Allaah says,
Allaah chose Adam, Noah, the family of Ibraaheem and the family of ‘Imraan above the mankind (of their time).”1

These Messengers and Prophets – in spite of lofty qualities with which Allaah described them and the excellent conducts for which they were known – are nevertheless humans who suffered what other humans suffer; they suffered hunger and sickness; they slept, ate, married and died. Allaah says, addressing Prophet Muhammad, “Verily, you will die, and verily, they (too) will die.”2

Allaah also says,
“And indeed, We sent Messengers before you (O Muhammad) and made for them wives and offspring.”3

They were even subjected to persecution; many of them were killed or expelled from their homes. Allaah says addressing Prophet Muhammad, “And remember when the disbelievers plotted against you to imprison you, or to kill you or to expel you (from your home), they were plotting and Allaah too was plotting; and Allaah is the Best of those who plot.”4

But to them were the end, victory and authority in this worldly life and the Hereafter.

Allaah says,
“Allaah will help those who help His (cause).”5

He also says,
“Allaah has decreed: Verily, it is I and My Messengers who shall be the victorious. Verily, Allaah is All-Powerful, All-Mighty.”6

1 Aal ‘Imraan 3:33.

2 Az-Zumar 39:30.
3 Ar-Ra‘d 13:38.
4 Al-Anfaal 8:30.
5 Al-Hajj 22:40.
6 Al-Mujaadilah 58:21.

41
SIGNS OF PROPHETHOOD
Since Prophethood is a means by which the noblest of all knowledge can be acquired and the greatest and most honourable deeds can be carried out; it is of Allaah’s mercy to give these Prophets the signs by which they could be known and through which they could be identified, though, every one of those who claimed to have a mission has some signs and conditions that could indicate his truthfulness if he is truthful or otherwise if he is a liar.

Theses signs are many, the most important of which are:
1. The Messenger should call to the worship of Allaah alone and to the abandonment of worshipping others besides Him. For this is the purpose for which Allaah created the creation.

2. The Messenger should call people to believe in him, and put his message into practice. 

Allaah commands His messenger, Muhammad to say, “O mankind! Verily, I am sent to you all as the Messenger of Allaah.”1

3. Allaah strengthens him with various kinds of signs of prophethood.

Among these signs are the verses that the Prophet Muhammad brought from Allaah and which his people could not repudiate or produce its like. Another example is the sign of Prophet Moosaa when his rod turned to a snake; the sign of Prophet Eesaa who healed the blind and the leper by the permission of Allaah, and the sign of Muhammad which is the Great Qur’aan, in spite of the fact that he was an illiterate who could neither read nor write among many other signs of the Prophets.

Among these signs is the clear and vivid truth which the Prophets and Messengers brought and which their opponents could not disprove or deny.

Rather, their opponents knew that what the Prophets had brought was the truth that could not be resisted.

Among the signs also are perfect conditions, beautiful traits and magnanimous conduct with which Allaah distinguished the Prophets.

4. His message should agree in fundamentals with the fundamentals to which all Messengers and Prophets called.2

5. He should not call others to the worship of himself or to direct any act of worship to him.

He should also not call to the glorification of his tribe or clan.

Allaah commands His Prophet Muhammad to tell people, “Say: I do not tell you that with me is the treasure of Allaah, nor (that) I know the Unseen; nor I tell you that I am an angel. I but follow what is revealed to me.”3

6. He should not ask from people any of the things of this world as a wage for his mission.

Allaah says, informing us about His Prophets Noah, Hood, Saalih, Loot and Shuaib, that they told their people,

1 Al-A‘raaf 7:158.

2 See: Majmoo‘ Fataawa Ibn Taymiyyah Vol. 4 p. 212-213.
3 Al-An‘aam 6:50.


Islam: Its Foundations And Concepts 2013_110
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“No reward do I ask of you for it (my message of Islaamic Monotheism); my reward is only from the Lord of all that exists.”1

Prophet Muhammad also told his people, “No wage do I ask of you for this (the Qur’aan), nor am I of those who pretend and fabricate things.”2

These Prophets and Messengers whom I have told you something of their qualities and signs of their prophethood, are many.

Allaah says,
“And verily, We have sent among every nation a Messenger (proclaiming): Worship Allaah (alone) and avoid all false deities.”3

These Messengers have made mankind happy; the history recorded their stories and the injunctions of their religion were repeatedly transmitted, that they are the truth and just. 

Likewise, repeatedly narrated is the victory with which Allaah honoured them and destruction of their enemies, like the destruction of the people of Noah with flood, drowning of Pharaoh, punishment for the people of Loot; and the victory of Muhammad over his enemies and the spread of his religion. Whoever knows this will know certainly that they brought for mankind good and guidance; that they directed them to all that could benefit them and warn them against all that could be harmful. The first of them is Adam and the last is Muhammad.

1 Ash-Shu‘araa 26:109, 127, 145, 164, 180.

2 Saad 38:86.
3 An-Nahl 16:36.

43
MANKIND'S NEED FOR THE MESSENGERS
The Prophets are Allaah’s Messengers to His slaves; they convey His commandments to them, they give them glad tidings of the bliss which Allaah has prepared for them if they obey His Commandments, warn them of the everlasting punishment if they disobey Him and tell them the stories of the past nations and what befell them of the punishment and torment in this world because they disobeyed the commandments of their Lord.

These Divine Commandments and prohibitions cannot be known independently by human reasoning, that is why Allaah ordained and prescribed commandments and prohibitions as a honour for mankind and to protect his interests. For people tend to obey their desires, thereby violating forbidden things, attacking other people and usurping their rights. It is therefore out of the utmost wisdom too that Allaah should send Messengers among mankind, every now and then, who would remind them of the commandments of Allaah, warn them against disobedience, recite to them admonitions and tell them the stories of past generations. Because, when wonderful stories are heard and marvellous concepts awaken the psyche, the sense of reason embraces that, increases in knowledge and has right perception.

The more man listens the more he thinks; the more he thinks the more he reflects; the more he reflects the more he understands and the more he understands the more he acts. So, sending Messengers is inevitable and there is no alternative for them if the truth is to be established.1

Shaykhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah2 said, “Divine Message is necessary for reformation of man in his worldly life and his final abode. As there will not be well-being for him in his Hereafter if he does not follow the message, there will also not be well-being for him in his worldly life if he does not follow the Message. He is therefore, bound to follow the Law of Allaah for he lives between two movement: a movement by which he seeks what benefits him and another by which he wards off what harms him. The Law of Allaah is then the light that shows him what can benefit or harm him.

That is the Light of Allaah on the earth, His justice between His slaves ad His fortress which provides safety for whoever enters it. 

What is meant by the Law of Allaah is not physical distinction between the harmful and useful; for even the animals can do that. The donkey or camel can differentiate between barley and sand.

What is meant by that is to be able to distinguish between deeds that can harm their doer in his worldly life and his Hereafter and deeds that can benefit him in his worldly life and his Hereafter. Like the benefit of faith, belief in the Oneness of Allaah, justice, righteousness, kindness, honesty, chastity, courage, knowledge, perseverance, enjoining all that is good, forbidding all that is evil, being kind to the kith and kin, being dutiful to parents, being kind to neighbours, fulfilling obligations, purifying deeds for Allaah, putting trust in Him, seeking help from Him, being pleased with His pre-decrees, submission to His rule, believing in Him and His Messengers in all that they inform him and all other deeds that are beneficial to man in his worldly life and his Hereafter. In the opposite of the above lies his misery and harm in his worldly life and his Hereafter.

1 A‘laam An-Nubuwwa by ‘Alee bin Muhammad Al-Mawardee p. 33.

2 He is Ahmad bin Abdul-Haleem, popularly known as Ibn Taymiyyah. He was born in the year 661 A.H. and died in the year 728 A.H. He was one of the great Islaamic Scholars and the author of many valuable books.

44
Had it not been because of the Divine Message, the human intellect would have not been guided to the details of what could benefit or harm him in his worldly life.

Among the greatest favours of Allaah upon His slaves is that He sent His Messengers to them, revealed to them His Books and showed them the Straight Path. Had it not been for this, humans would have been like cattle or even worse.

So, whoever accepts the message of Allaah and stands firm on that is among the best of all creation. But whoever rejects it and deviates from it, such is among the worst of the creation and worse in condition than the dog and pig and the most contemptible creature.

There is no way the inhabitants of the earth can survive except by the effects of the message that is existent among them, for when the impacts of the message become exterminated from the earth and the signs of their guidance become wiped off, Allaah will dismantle the heaven and the earth and bring forth the Resurrection.

Further, the dweller of the earth’s need for the Message is not like their need for sun, moon, air and rain, and it is also not like their need for their own souls or like the need of the eye for the light; or like that of the body for food and drink. Rather the need for the Messenger is greater than all that and all other things one could think of or assume.

The Messengers are the intermediary between Allaah and His creatures as far as His commandment and prohibitions are concerned; they are the envoys between Him and His slaves. The last of them, their leader and the dearest of them to Allaah is Muhammad. 

Allaah sent him as mercy for mankind and all that exists. He makes him a proof for the followers of the right path and a proof against all creatures. He commanded His slaves to follow, love, respect and honour him, and to give him all obligations due to him. Allaah took covenants and pledges from all other Prophets and Messengers that they would believe in and follow him (if they were to meet him or hear of him) and He also ordered them to take the same covenant from their believing followers. 

Allaah sent him at the threshold of the Hour. 

With him, He guided many from error, rescued many from ignorance, and opened through his Message blind eyes, deaf ears and sealed hearts. He lightened the earth through his message, after it had been in darkness and united with it the separated hearts. He straightened with the Messenger the crooked faith and explained through him the bright path. Allaah opened for him his heart, removed from him his burden, raised high his fame and subjected those who were against him to humiliation and disgrace.

He sent him after a break in the succession of the sent Messengers and extermination of the impacts of the previously revealed Books; when words had been twisted and the law altered, when every nation relied on injustice in their opinions, made decisions regarding Allaah and between His slaves with their own corrupt sayings and desires. It was then that Allaah guided mankind through him and showed them the right way, He brought people from darkness to light through him and made distinction with him, between those who deserve success and those who were sinners.

Whoever follows his guidance will be rightly guided and whoever deviates from His Path will go astray and such has only oppressed himself. May Allaah bestow peace and blessings on him and all other Messengers and Prophets.1


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We can now summarise man’s need for the message in the following points:
1. That man is a nurtured creature and it is inevitable for him to know his Lord and Creator; to know what He wants from him and why He created him.

Man cannot however know all that independently except by knowing the Prophets and the Messengers and knowing the guidance and light which they brought.

2. Man is a component of body and soul. The nutrition for body is whatever is available of food and drink, but the nutrition of the soul has been prescribed

1 Qaa‘idah fee wujoobil I‘tisaam bir-risaalah by Ibn Taymiyyah, See: Al-Fataawaa 19 p.99-102.
45
by the One Who created it; that nutrition is true religion and righteous deed.

So it is the Prophets and Messengers who brought true religion and guided to ighteous deed.

3. Man is religious by nature and he must have a religion which he must ractice and this religion must be the true one. So, there is no way to know the true religion except through belief in the Prophets and Messengers and to believe in all that they brought.

4. Man is in need of knowing the way that can lead him to the pleasure of Allaah in this world and to His Paradise and bliss in the Hereafter. And no one can guide to this way except the Prophets and Messengers alone.

5. Man is in himself weak and many enemies lay in wait for him: Satan wants to mislead him, evil companions make bad things fair-seeming to him and his base self incites him to do evil. Hence, he needs what can protect him against the evil plans of his enemies and it is the Prophets and Messengers who guided man to that and clearly explained it to him.

6. Man is civil by nature, his meeting with people and his relations with them therefore need a law by which justice and equality can be established among people – the absence of which can make human life be like that of the jungle. Also, this law must be able to protect the right of every one without excessiveness and negligence and none could bring such perfect law except the Messengers and Prophets.

7. Man needs to know what can give him tranquillity and psychological security and guide him to means of real happiness. This is what the Prophets and Messengers guided to. After explaining why the creation is in need of Prophets and Messengers, it is now appropriate to discuss the final return and explain the proofs and evidences that support that.
46
THE FINAL RETURN
Every man knows with certainty that death is inevitable. But what is his fate after death?
Will he be happy or miserable?

Many people and nations of the world believe that they will be resurrected after death and called to account for all their deeds; that they will earn good reward if they do good and punishment if they do evil.1 This issue – the Resurrection and accountability – are confirmed by sound reason and supported by Divine Laws.

It is based on three fundamentals:
1. Confirmation of the perfect knowledge of the Lord, may He be glorified.
2. Confirmation of His perfect Omnipotence.
3. Confirmation of His perfect Wisdom.2

There are many textual and logical evidences on the confirmation of the final return some of which are:
1. Drawing evidence on the resurrection of the dead through the creation of the heavens and the earth. Allaah says, “Do they not see that Allaah, Who created the heavens and the earth, and was not wearied by their creation, is Able to give life to the dead? Yes, He is surely Able to do all things.”3

He also says,
“Is not He Who created the heavens and the earth, is Able to create the like of them? Yes, indeed. He is the All-Knowing Supreme Creator.”4

2. Drawing evidence of Allaah’s ability to reproduce the creation once more from His ability to originate the creation without any previous example. So, He, Who is able to bring a thing into existence should be able to reproduce it with greater reason. Allaah the Exalted says, “And He it is Who originates the creation, then He will repeat it (after it has been perished); and this is easier for Him. His is the Sublime Similitude.”5

He also says,
“And he (man) puts forth for Us a parable, and has forgotten the facts of his own creation. He says: Who will give life to these bones after they are rotten and have become dust. Say (O Muhammad): He will give life to them Who created them at the first! And He is the All-Knower of every creation.”6

3. He created man in the best shape and in this perfect and complete form. He endowed him with limbs, power and characteristics; with flesh, bones, veins

1 See: Al-Jawaabus-Saheeh Vol. 4 p. 96.

2 See: Al-Fawaaid by Ibn al-Qayyim p. 6-7.
3 Al-Ahqaaf 46:33.
4 Yaa Seen 36:81.
5 Ar-Room 30:27.
6 Yaa Seen 36:78-79.

47
and nerves; with outlets, tools, sciences, wishes and industries. There is in all this the greatest evidence of His ability to resurrect the dead.

4. Drawing the proof of His ability to resurrect the dead in the Hereafter, from H is raising up of the dead in this worldly life. Stories have been narrated of this in the Divine Books which Allaah revealed to his Messengers.

Examples of this is raising up the dead by the permission of Allaah at the hands of Prophets Ibraaheem and ‘Eesaa, may peace be on them – among many others.

5. Drawing evidence of His ability to resurrect the dead from His ability to bring about things that are similar to the scenes of the Day of Congregation and Resurrection like:
a. Allaah created man from a drop of sperm that was scattered all over the body – that is why all parts of the body enjoy the intercourse – Allaah collects this drop from all parts of the body, then makes it go to the womb and created therewith the man. If all these parts were scattered and He gathered them together and created from them that man, then if they become scattered once again after death, what can prevent Him from bringing them together once more.

Allaah says,
“Then tell Me about the semen that you emit.
Is it you who create it (i.e., make this semen into a perfect human being)? Or are We the Creator?”1

b. When the plant seeds – regardless of their shapes – fall into the fertile land and water and soil overwhelm them; the logical consequence is that they become rotten and decayed; for, any of the water and soil is enough to make the seed rotten and the combination of both will can it so with greater reason.

But the fact is that, the seed will not decay but remains preserved. When the humidity increases, the seed breaks open and from it comes out a plant. Does that not point to a perfect power and comprehensive wisdom? Will this All-Wise and All-Able Lord be incapable of collecting parts of man and reconstituting his limbs?

Allaah says,
“Then tell Me about the seed that you sow in the ground. Is it you that make it grow, or are We the Grower?”2

A similar verse in meaning is Allaah’s saying, And you see the earth barren, but when We sent down water (rain) on it, it is stirred (to life) and it swells and puts forth every lovely kind (of growth).”3

6. The All-Able, All-Knowledgeable and All-Wise Creator is deemed far from producing the creation for fun and leaving them in vain.

He says,
“We created not the heaven and the earth and all that is between them without purpose! That is the assumption of those who disbelieve! Then woe to those who disbelieve (in Islaamic Monotheism) from the Fire.”4

Allaah created the creation for great wisdom and lofty purpose.

He says,
“And I created not the jinn and mankind except that they should worship Me.”5

1 Al-Waaqi‘ah 56:58-59.

2 Al-Waaqi‘ah 56:63-64.
3 Al-Hajj 22:5.
4 Saad 38:27.
5 Adh-Dhaariyaah 51:56.


Islam: Its Foundations And Concepts 2013_110
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It is therefore not becoming of this All-Wise Lord to regard as equal those who obey Him and those who disobey.

He says,
“Shall We treat those who believe and do righteous good deeds as those who associate partners with Allaah and commit crimes on the earth? Or should We treat the pious ones as the criminals?”1

Therefore, it is of His Perfect Wisdom and Great Power to raise up the creation on the Day of Resurrection in order to recompense every human being for his deed; and to reward the good-doer and punish the evil doer.

Allaah says,
“To Him is the return of all of you. The promise of Allaah is true. It is He Who produced the creation and then will reproduce it, that He may reward with justice those who believed and did righteous deeds. But those who disbelieved will have a drink of boiling fluids and painful torment because they used to disbelieve.”2

Belief in the Last Day – the Day of Resurrection – has great impacts on individuals and the society.

Among its impacts are:
1. It makes man endeavour to obey Allaah seeking for reward of that Day and keeps him from disobeying Him out of fear of the punishment of that Day.

2. Belief in the Last Day consoles the believer on the bliss and pleasure of this world that he misses with the pleasure and reward of the Hereafter which he hopes for.

3. It is through the belief in the Last Day that man knows his fate after death and knows that he will get good reward for his deed if it is good, and get punished if it is evil. He knows that he will be made to stand for reckoning; that revenge will be taken on him for those he wronged in this world and the rights of those he wronged or oppressed would be taken back from him.

4. Belief in the Last Day actualises peace and security for mankind especially in this time that there is inadequate security and wars rage with no end – because, belief in Allaah and the Last Day makes man abstain from doing evil to others privately and publicly.

That belief even penetrates his heart and makes him dismiss evil intentions -if he has any.

5. Belief in the Last Day deters man from doing injustice to others and violating their rights. If people believe in the Last Day, they will be safe from wronging one another and their rights will be protected.

6. Belief in the Last Day makes man look at this worldly abode as just one of the stages of life and that it is not the real life in itself.

To conclude this section, let us quote the words of “Win Bet” the American Christian who used to work in one of the churches and then embraced Islaam and found the fruit of belief in the Last Day. He says, “I now know answers to the questions that had very much occupied my life. The questions are: Who am I? What do I want? Why did I come to this world? And what is my destination?”3

1 Saad 38:28.

2 Yoonus 10:4. For all that has been previously mentioned, Al-Fawaaid by Ibn al-Qayyim p. 6, 9; and At-Tafseer Al-Kabeer by Ar-Raazee Vol. 2, p. 113-116.
3 Ad-Da’awah Magazine No. 1722, 19-9-1420 p. 37.

49
FUNDAMENTALS OF THE MESSENGER’S MISSION
All Prophets and Messengers were unanimous in their call to general fundamentals1 like belief in Allaah, His angles, His Books, His Messengers; belief in the Last Day and in pre-decree, its good and bad; and like command to worship Allaah alone without ascribing any partner to Him, to follow His path and not to follow dissenting paths; like prohibiting the four kinds of sins: all evil deeds, the apparent and the hidden; sins; unjust oppression; associating partners with Allaah in worship and worshipping idols.

They also agreed on deeming Allaah far from having a wife, children, associate or equal as they agreed on prohibition of saying about Him what is not true; on prohibition of infanticide, killing unjustly; eating usury; usurping of orphan’s wealth.

They were unanimous on enjoining the fulfilment of covenants and giving full scale and weight, being dutiful to parents; doing justice between people; being truthful in sayings and deeds; prohibition of squandering and arrogance as well as eating up people’s wealth unjustly.

Ibn Al-Qayyim2 said,
“All Divine Laws are unanimous in their fundamentals – even if they differ in any other things. The goodness of these laws are firmly rooted in the human intellect and had the laws not come in this form, they would have been unwise, unbeneficial and merciless though it is impossible that they should come in any other form.

Allaah says,
“And if the truth would have been in accordance with their desires, verily, the heavens and the earth, and whosoever is therein would have been corrupted.”3

How can a wise man deem it permissible that the Law of Allaah Who is the Best of judges should come in a form different from its present form?4”

This is why that all Prophets practiced one religion as confirmed by Allaah when He says, “O (you) Messengers! Eat of the food that Allaah has made lawful and do righteous deeds. Verily, I am Well-Acquainted with what you do. And verily, this your religion (of Islaamic Monotheism) is one religion and I am your Lord, so keep your duty to Me.”5

He also says,
“He (Allaah) has ordained for you the same religion (Islaamic Monotheism) which He ordained for Nooh (Noah) and that which We have revealed to you (O Muhammad) and that which We ordained for Ibraaheem (Abraham), Moosaa (Moses) and ‘Eesaa (Jesus), saying: you should establish religion (i.e., to do what it orders you to do practically). And make no divisions in it.”6

1 These general fundamentals are indicated in Suratul Baqarah 2:285, 286; and Al-An‘aam 6:151, 153; Al-A‘raaf 7:33; Al-Israa 17:23, 37.

2 His name is Muhammad bin Abee Bakr bin Ayyoob Az-Zar‘ee. He was born in 691 A.H. and died in 751 A.H.. He was one of the great Islaamic scholars and he authored many great books.
3 Al-Mu’minoon 23:71.
4 Miftaahu daaris-sa‘aadah Vol. 2, p. 383. See also: Al-Jawaabus-saheeh Vol. 4 p. 322; Lawaami‘ul-anwaar by As- Safaareenee Vol. 2, p. 263.
5 Al- Mu’minoon 23:51-52.
6 Ash-Shooraa 42:13.

50
The purpose of religion is to make mankind attain what they are created for: to worship their Lord alone without associating any partner with Him.1 He ordained for them rites which they must fulfil and guaranteed for them obligations. He also gave them means that can make them attain that good, so that they can achieve the pleasure of their Lord and happiness in this world and the Hereafter according to a Divine Way that does not tear up man or afflict his person with deadly diseases that can cause a clash between his nature and soul and the world around him.

All Messengers called to the Divine Religion that presents man with creedal foundation in which he should believe, and the law which he should follow in his life. That is why Torah was a creed as well as a law and its followers were required to make it judge between them.

Allaah says,
“Verily, We did send down the Tauraat (Torah), therein was guidance and light, by which the Prophets who submitted themselves to Allaah’s Will judged for the Jews and the rabbis and the priests.”2

Then came the Christ who brought with him the Gospel in which there was guidance and light and in confirmation of the Torah that preceded it.

Allaah says,
“And in their footsteps We sent ‘Eesaa (Jesus) son of Mary, confirming the Torah that had come before him, and We gave him the Injeel (Gospel) in which there was guidance and light.”3

Then Muhammad came with the final Divine Law and the complete religion as a witness over the laws that had come before it and to abrogate them. Allaah gave him the Qur’aan as a confirmation of the Divine Books that had come before it.

Allaah says,
“And We have sent down to you (O Muhammad) the Book (this Qur’aan) in truth confirming the Scripture that came before it and a watcher over it (old Scriptures).

So judge among them by what Allaah has revealed, and follow not their vain desires, diverging away from the truth that has come to you.”4

Allaah also explains that Muhammad and the believers who were with him believe in Him as all Prophets who were before them had done.


Islam: Its Foundations And Concepts 2013_110
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مؤسس ومدير المنتدى
أحمد محمد لبن Ahmad.M.Lbn

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He says,
“The Messenger (Muhammad) believes in what has been sent down to him from his Lord and (so do) the believers. Each one believes in Allaah, His angels, His Books and His Messengers. They say: We make no distinction between one another of His Messengers. And they say: We hear and obey. (We seek) Your Forgiveness, our Lord and to you is the return.”5

1 Majmoo‘ Fataawaa Vol. 2, p.6.

2 Al-Maai‘dah 5:44.
3 Al-Maaidah 5:46.
4 Al-Maaidah 5:48.
5 Al-Baqarah 2:285.

51
THE EVERLASTING MESSAGE1
All that has been previously explained of the conditions of Judaism, Christianity, Mazdaism, Zaradashtiyah shows the situation of mankind2 in the 6th century A.D. when the religion became corrupted and all political, social and economical conditions were also corrupted; at a time when bloody wars became widespread, dictatorship emerged and mankind lived in stark darkness. This situation led to the darkness of the hearts as a result of disbelief and ignorance. Morals became degenerated, honours and rights were violated and mischief became the order of the day in the land and on the sea.

The situation was so terrible that if any wise man were to ponder over it, he would have realised that mankind – in that age – were dying and that they were heading for abyss of no return had Allaah not rescued them with a great reformer who was bearing the torch of Prophethood and the light of guidance in order to illuminate the way for mankind and guided them to the Straight Path.

At that time, Allaah permitted that the everlasting light of Prophethood should emanate from Makkah in which there is the Great House. The Makkan environment had been like other human environments in terms of polytheism, ignorance, injustice and autocracy except that it was distinguished from other place with many qualities some of which were:

1. It was a pure environment that had not been affected by the stains of Greek, Roman or India philosophy. Its natives used to enjoy deep-rooted eloquence, lively minds and exceptional dispositions.

2. It is situated in the heart of the world. It is in the middle place between Europe, Asia and Africa, an important factor that makes it easy for the everlasting message to spread quickly and reach these continents in a short period.

3. It is a secured place. Allaah protected it when Abraha (the Abyssinian King) wanted to invade it. The neighbouring Roman and Persian empires also were unable to conquer it. Even its commerce was secured in the north and south. That was a herald for the advent of this Noble Prophet. Allaah has reminded the inhabitants of this city of this great favour when He says, “Have We not established for them a secured sanctuary (Makkah) to which are brought fruits of all kinds?”

4. It is a desert environment that has preserved many of her good and commendable traits like generosity, good neighbourliness, earnest concern for honour among other qualities that qualified her for being the best suitable place for the clan of Quraysh which was well known for eloquence, oratory and honourable traits and held the positions of honour and leadership. Allaah chose His Prophet Muhammad to make him the last of all Prophets and Messengers.

He was born in Makkah in the 6th century A.D. approximately in the year 570.

He grew up an orphan, for his father died while he was still in the womb. His mother and paternal grandfather later died while he was six years old. So, his uncle took care of him and he grew up an orphan. Signs of extraordinary brilliance manifested on him; and his habits, manners and traits were different from those of his people. He never lied in his speech and never hurt anyone.

1 For detailed reading see: Ar-Raheequl-Makhtoom by Mubaarakpuri

2 See section: ‘Condition of the existing religions’ in this book.

52
He became popular with truthfulness, chastity and sincerity so much so that many of his people would entrust him with their valuable properties and he would keep them as he would preserve his own life and wealth. This made them confer on him the title “Al-Ameen” (the trustworthy).

He was modest and shy and never showed himself naked in front of anyone since he came of age. He was innocent and pious and felt hurt when he saw his people worshipping idols, drinking alcohol and shedding innocent blood. He related with them only in those deeds of theirs which he loved and was pleased with and kept away from them when they indulged in their shameless acts and sins. He would help the orphans and the widows and feed the hungry.

When he was close to forty years of age, he became seriously constrained and inconvenienced by the corruption that was around him and started going for seclusion to worship his Lord and he would ask Him guidance to the Straight Path.

While he was on this condition, one of the angels descended upon him with a revelation from his Lord and he commanded him to convey this religion to mankind; to call them to the worship of Allaah alone and to shun the worship of others besides him.

Then Revelation of ordainments and rules continued day after day and year after year until Allaah perfected this religion for mankind and completed His favour on them with this perfection. After the Messenger of Allaah had fulfilled his duty, Allaah caused him to die.

He lived for sixty-three years; forty before prophethood and twenty-three as a Prophet and Messenger.

Whoever ponders over the conditions of the Prophets and studies their history will know with certainty that there was no way in which the Prophethood of any Prophet was established except that the Prophethood of Muhammad was established in that way the more. If you reflect on how the Prophethood of Moosa and ‘Eesaa was transmitted, you will know that it was transmitted in succession.

But the succession in which the Prophethood of Muhammad was transmitted was greater, stronger and more recent. Likewise, the succession in which their miracles are transmitted were similar but that with which the miracles of Muhammad were transmitted is greater, for his miracles are many and the greatest of that is the Glorious Qur’aan which is continued to be transmitted successively in voice and in letter.1

Whoever makes a comparison between what Prophets Moosaa and ‘Eesaa brought and what was brought by Prophet Muhammad of sound belief, wise ordainments and useful knowledge, will know with certainty that all of them emanated from a single lamp: the lamp of Prophethood. Whoever compares between the conditions of the followers of the Prophets and followers of Muhammad will know with certainty that the followers of Muhammad were the best of all people and the most of the Prophets’ followers in impact on those who came after them. They have spread the Islaamic Monotheism, propagated justice and were merciful to the weak and destitute.2

If you want additional evidences of Muhammad’s Prophethood, I will quote to you the proofs and signs that were found by ‘Alee bin Rabban at-Tabaree when he was a Christian. He later embraced Islaam because of those signs.

They are:
1. The Messenger called to the worship of Allaah alone and shunning the worship of others beside Him. In this, he agreed with all other Prophets.

2. He showed clear signs which only Prophets of Allaah can show.

3. He predicted the future events and they came to pass as he had predicted.

1 See special section about the Qur’aan in this book. p.
2 Majmoo‘ al-Fataawaa Vol. 4 p. 201, 211; and Ifhaamul yahood by Samaw’al Al-Magribi p. 58-59.


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4. He predicted the occurrence of many events of the world and its countries and these events came to pass as he had predicted.

5. That the Book brought by Muhammad – the Qur’aan – is a sign of Prophethood for it is the most eloquent Book, sent down unto an illiterate man who could neither read nor write, but yet challenged the orators to produce the like thereof or the like of a Soorah* in it; and because of the fact that Allaah guarantees its preservation, preserved the correct belief with it, guaranteed it as the perfect divine ordainment and established with it the best community.

6. That he is the seal of all Prophets and that had he not been sent, prophecies of the past Prophets who gave glad tiding of his advent would have turned false.

7. That all Prophets had prophesied about him before his advent since a long time.

They had described his mission, his country and submission of other nations and kings to him and his nation. They also mentioned the spread of his religion.

8. His victory over nations that waged war against him as a sign of his Prophethood; for it would be impossible for a man who falsely claims to be a Messenger of Allaah and yet be strengthened by Allaah with victory, authority, prevalence over enemies, spread of his message and abundance of his followers; for all this cannot happen except in the hand of a truthful Prophet.

9. His religious rites and acts of worship, his decency, truthfulness, commendable character, manners and ordinances. All this cannot be found together except in a Prophet.

After mentioning these proofs, this guided man then said, “These are illuminating traits and sufficient proofs. Whoever is endowed with them must be a Prophet; such a person has hit the target and prospered; and the belief in him is mandatory. Whoever rejects these proofs and denies them has incurred loss in his efforts and lost his worldly life and Hereafter.”1

At the end of this section, I will narrate to you two testimonies: that of the former roman King who was a contemporary of Prophet Muhammad and that of our contemporary Christian Evangelist John Saint.

The First Testimony: That of Heraclius:
Al-Bukhaaree reported the story of Abu Sufyaan when the Roman King called him.

Abu Sufyaan said that Heraclius sent to him in the company of some Qurayshee riders who went to Syria for commerce, at a time that the Messenger of Allaah was in a truce with Abu Sufyaan and Quraysh pagans.

They came to Heraclius while they were at Ilya.2 Heraclius invited him to his court and with him were great men of Rome. He called them and his interpreter.

He then asked Abu Sufyaan and his company: “Which one of you is closest to this man who claims to be a Prophet?”

Abu Sufyaan said, “I am the closest to him in blood.”

Heraclius then told his retinue, “Bring him close to me and let his companions stand behind him.” He then told his interpreter, “Tell them: I will ask this (Abu * Soorah literary means degree. Islamically, it is a section of the glorious Qur'aan that contains a group of verses that may or may not be related in meanings. Some translators do translate it as a chapter which is quite inaccurate because a chapter is a combination of paragraphs in which related issues are discussed.

1 Ad-deen wad-dawla fee ithbaati nubuwwati Muhammad, by ‘Alee bin Rabban At-Tabaranee p. 47. Also see: Al- Islaam by Al-Qurtubee p. 362.

2 A town in Syria.

54
Sufyaan) about the man who claims to be a Prophet, so, if he lies to me, you should refute that.”

Abu Sufyaan said, “By Allaah! If not because of the shame of having a lie being recorded against me, I would have lied about him. The first question he asked me about him was: How is his lineage amongst you?” Abu Sufyaan answered, “He is of noble lineage among us.”

He then asked, “Has anybody among you ever uttered this word before him?”
I said, “No.”
He said, “Had anyone among his forefathers been a king?”
I said, “No.”
He said, “Are his followers noble men or weak people?”
I said, “Weak people.”
He said, “Do they increase or decrease?”
I said, “They increase.”
He said, “Did any of them apostatised from his religion in annoyance after having embraced it?”
I said, “No”
He said, “Does he betray?”
I said, “No. But we are now in a truce with him and we do not know what he is going to do.”
Abu Sufyaan added, “This is the only statement I could say against him.”
Heraclius further asked, “Did you go to war with him?”
I said, “Yes!”
He said, “How was your war with him?”
I said, “It was an alternate victory. He won sometimes and we won sometimes.”
He said, “What does he command you to do?”
I said, “He said, ‘Worship God alone and do not associate anything in worship with him and shun what your fathers say.’ He enjoined on us prayer, truthfulness, probity and kindness to the kith and kin.”
Heraclius then told his interpreter, “Tell him:
I asked you of his lineage and you said that he has a noble lineage among you.
That is the case with the Messengers. They were sent from the noble lineage among their people.
55
I asked you: Had anybody among you claimed what he claims and you said, No. And I say: If anyone had said before him what he says now, I would have sa