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منتدى إنما المؤمنون إخوة The Believers Are Brothers

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 Explaining the fundamentals of faith

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مُساهمةموضوع: Explaining the fundamentals of faith   18/06/11, 05:03 am

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Explaining the fundamentals of faith
Shaikh - Mohammed Saleh Alothaimeen


INDEX:

Start
* The Deen of Islam
* The Pillars of Islaam (Arkan ul Islam)
* The Foundation of Islaamic Creed
- Belief In Allaah
- The Belief In The Angles
- The Belief In The Kutub
- The Belief In Ar-Rusul (Messengers)
- The Belief In The Last Day
- The Belief In Al-Qadar
- The Ahdaaf (Objectives) of Islamic Aqeedah


Start
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

All praise is due to Allah,we praise Him, seek His Help and forgiveness; we repent to Him and seek refuge in Allah from the evils of our own slaves and from our wicked deeds . Whomsoever has been guided by Allaah , non can misguided and whomsoever has been misguided by Allaah non can guide him. I bear witness that there is no true god worthy or being worshipped except Allaah alone, without a partner or associate. I further bare witness that Mohammed (Salla Allaah Aleihi Waslan1 )
is Allaah true slave and Messenger ; may Allaah bestow His peace and Blessings on Muhammed (Salla Allaah Aleihi Wasallam)
, upon his good and pure family , and upon his noble companions and those who follow their path.

It proceeds then: that the knowledge about Tawheed2 constitutes the most noble and necessitated knowledge, because it represents the knowledge about Allah , His right upon His bondsmen . This knowledge is the key for the way to Allaah , and it is the foundation for His legislation. That is why there is a consensus amongst all the messengers to invite people to Tawheed . Allaah تعالى3 says:

( وما أرسلنا من قبلك من رسول إلا نوحى إليه أنه لا إله إلا أنا فاعبدون)

And we did not send any Messenger before you (O Mohammed) but We inspired him (saying(: Lailaha illa Ana {none has the right to be worshipped but I (Allah)},so worship Me (alone and no one else).( Qur’aan 21:25(4

Alaahh bears witness on His Wahdaniyyah: being the only true God that deserves to be worshipped alone and who has no coequal in Himself as well as in His Names and Attributes .The angles and people of knowledge also testify for His Wahdaniyyah :

( شهد الله أنه لا إله إلا هو والملائكة وأولو العلم قائما بالقسط لا إله إلا هو العزيز الحكيم) ( آل عمران ،18)

Allaah bears witness that La illah illa Huwah ( none has Wright to worshiped but He,) and the angles , and those having knowledge (also give this witness); ( He is always) maintaining His creation in Justice . La illah illa Huwa , the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.(Qura’an 3:18)

Given this acknowledgement of the rank of Taweed, it is therefore incumbent upon every Muslim to give proper consideration to this matter through learning, understanding, education, and conviction, in order for him to establish his Deen 5on a sound foundation, confidence and submission that would give him the good fortune of sharing it’s fruits and results.

Translated By:
DR. Saleh Al-Saleh

***********************************
The Deen of Islam

Islam is the Deen, which Alaah has sent Mohammed (Salla Allaah Aleihi Wasallam
) with ; Allaah made it the last of religions and perfected it for His creation; He made it a completion of His Favors upon them , and chose it to be their Deen ; No other religion is accepted from any one except the Deen of Islam . Allaah تعالى says:

( ما كان محمداَ أبا أحد من رجالكم و لكن رسول الله و خاتم النبيين)
(الأحزاب ،40)


Mohammed (Salla Allaah Aleihi Wasallam) is not the father of any man among you , but he is the messenger of Allaah , and the last (end) of the prophets. ( Qua’ran :33 :40)

He also says:

( اليوم أكملت لكم دينكم و أتممت عليكم نعمتى و رضيت لكم الإسلام دينا)
( المائدة ، 30)

This day6, I have perfected your religion for you , and completed my favour upon you, and have chosen for you Al-Islam as your Deen. ( Qura’an :5:30)

( إن الدين عند الله الإسلام ) ( آل عمران،19)


Truly, The Deen before Allaah is Al-Islam7(Qua’aran 19)

( و من يبتغى غير الإسلام دينا فلن يقبل منه و هو فى الآخرة من الخاسرين) ( آل عمران /85)
And Whoever seeks a religion other than Islam , it will never accepted of him , and the Hereafter he will be one of the loser.(Qura’an 3:85)

Allaah تعالى ordained that mankind must submit to Him in Islam .He said addressing His Messenger (Mohammed )

(قل يا أيها الناس إنى رسول الله إليكم جميعا الذى له ملك السموات و الأرض ز لا إله إلا هو يحى و يميت ، فآمنوا بالله و رسوله النبى الأمى الذى يؤمن بالله و كلماته و أتبعوه لعلكم تهتدون ) ( الأعراف،158)

Say ( O Mohammed ) ‘O mankind! Verily, I am sent to you all as the Messenger of Allaah – to whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth. La illah illa Huwa(non has the Wright to be worshipped but He.); It is He who gives life and causes death. So believe in Alaahh and His messenger (Mohammed) , the prophet who can neither read nor write , who believes in Allaah and His words8 , and follow him so that you may be guided .(Qura’an 7:158)

It is reported in Saheeh Muslim 9on the authority of Abu Hurairah , that Alaahh’s Messenger Said: “

و الذى نفس محمد بيده لا يسمع بى أحد من هذه الأمه يهودى ولا نصرانى ، ثم يموت و لم يؤمن بالذى أرسلت به إلا كان من أصحاب النار."

“By Him (Allaah ) in Whose Hand Mohammed soul’s is, there is none from amongst the Jews and Christians ( of these present nations) who hears about me and dies without believing in the message with which I have been sent (i.e Tawheed) , but he will be from the dwellers of the (Hell) Fire”10

The belief in the prophet Mohammed is the attestation with full acceptance and submission , not just mere attestation , that what he brought forth is the truth. That is why Abu Taalib ( the uncle of the prophet) did not become a believer in the messenger , despite his attestation to what the prophet forth and his witness that it is the best of religions.

The Deen of Islaam embraces all of the human welfare that is comprised in the previous religions ; it is distinguished above all the religions in it’s suitability for all times , places , and nations, Allah تعالى addresses His Messenger Mohammed saying :

( و أنزلنا إليك الكتاب بالحق مصدقا لما بين يديه من الكتاب و مهيمنا عليه ) ( المائدة ،48)

And We have sent down to you ( O Mohammed ) the Book ( this Qura’an) in truth , confirming the scripture that came before it and Muhayminan ( trustworthy in highness and witness) over it ( Old Scripture) . ( Qura’an 5:48)

The suitability of the Deen means that adhering to Islaam does not contradict the welfare of the Ummah (Muslim community at large) in any place or in any time. Indeed it is its betterment. This does not mean, however, that the Deen is subjugate to every time , place and Ummah as some people like it to be.

The Deen of Islaam is the Deen of Truth, whoever truly adheres to it , Allaah guarantee him victory and makes him prevail on everyone else who doesn’t . Allaah تعالى says:

( هو الذى أرسل رسوله بالهدى و دين الحق ليظهره على الدين كله و لو كره المشركون) ( الصف ،9)

He it is Who sent His Messenger (Mohammed) with the guidance and Deen of the Truth to make it prevail over all (other) religions even though the Mushrikeen hate (it). (Qura’an 61:9)

( و عد الله الذين آمنو منكم و عملوا الصالحات ليستخلفنهم فى الأرض كما إستخلف الذيم من قبلهم و ليمكنن لهم دينهم الذى إرتضى لهم و ليبدلنهم من بعد خوفهم أمنا يعبدوننى لا يشركون بى بى شئيا و من كفر بعد ذلك فأولئك هم الفاسقون) ( النور ، 55)

Allaah has promised, to those among you who believe, and do righteous deeds, that he will certainly grant them succession to ( the present rulers) in the land , as He granted it to those before them ; and he will grant them the authority to practice their religion , that which He has chosen for them ( i.e Islaam) . And He will surely give them in exchange a safe security after their fear (provided) they (believers) worship Me and do not associate anything ( in worship) with Me. But whoever disbelieved after this, they are Fasiqoun( rebellious , disobedience to Allaah) . Qura’an 21:55)

The Deen of Islam is Aqeedah ( Creed) and Sharee’ah ( Legislation ) and it is perfect in both . Islaam commands:

1. The Tawheed and forbids Shirk ( setting associate with Allaah).
2. Truthfulness, and forbids lying.
3. Justice11 , and forbids oppression.
4. Trustworthiness, and forbids treachery.
5. Faithfulness, and forbids betrayal
6. To be good and dutiful to one’s parents, and forbids being disrespectful to them.
7. Keep ties with relatives of kinship, and forbids severing ties with them.
8. To have good relation to one’s neighborhood, and forbids all forms of ill-treatment to the neighbors.

Generally speaking , Islaam commands all noble morals , and forbids all ill and despicable manners; it also commands righteousness and forbids wrong. Allaaah تعالى says:

( إن الله يأمر بالعدل و الإحسان و إيتاء ذى القربى و ينهى عن الفحشاء و المنكر و البغى يعظكم لعلكم تذكرون) ( النحل ، 90)

Verily, Allaah enjoins Al-‘Adel (i.e justice and worshipping none but Allaah) and Al-Ihsan12, and giving help to kith and kin13 , and forbids Al-Fahsha14 , Al-Mankar15 , and Al-Baghy16 .(Qura’an 16:90)
________________________________________
Arkan ul Islam
The Pillars of Islaam


Arkan Ul Islam are its basic foundations upon which it is established ; they are five , mentioned in the narration by Ibn Umar in Which the prophet said:

( بنى الإسلام على خمسة : على أن يوحد الله ( وفى رواية أخرى على خمس): شهادة ألا إله إلا الله ، و أن محمدا عبده و رسوله ، و إقام الصلاة ، و إيتاء الزكاة ، و صيام رمضان ، و الحج . فقال رجل : الحج و صيام رمضان ، قال : لا صيام رمضان و الحج ، هكذا سمعته من رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم – متفق عليه – و اللفظ لمسلم.

“ Islaam is raised on five (pillars): To establish His Tawheed {and in other narration “The Shahaadah (testimony) that La illaha illa Allaah ( none has the right to be worshipped but Allaah ) and that Mohammed is Allah’s salve and Messenger}, establishment of prayers, payment of Zakaat, the fast of Ramadan , and pilgrimage to (to Makkah) . A person said ( to the narrator) ( which of the two precedes the other ) Pilgrimage or the fast of Ramadan? Upon this (the narrator) replied: No ( it is not the pilgrimage first) but the fast of Ramadan precede the pilgrimage , this is how I have heard it from Allaah’s Messenger”18

FIRST: The Shahaadah of :

لا إله إلا الله ، و أن محمدا عبده و رسوله

La ilaaha illal laah,Mohammed Rassoulul laah

Is the deceived belief expressed on the tongue as though one sees with his own eyes the certainty of his firm conviction. The fact that Shahaadah has been made as single pillar despite the multiplicity in what is being attested, because of either of the following (reasons):

The Messenger is a bearer ( of News) about Allaah تعالى . Attesting therefore , that he , the messenger is a true slave of Allah and bearer of the message ( of Islaam) is integral part of the meaning of Shahaadah ( La illaha illal laah) or

That the two testimonies la illa illal laah , and Mohammed Rassoulal laah are ( the required) bases for the rightness of deeds and their acceptances , since both , the validity and acceptance of deeds , cannot be achieved without Al-Ikhlas to Allaah ( sincere devotion of intention to Allaah alone) and Mutaba’ah ( following) of Rasooulaul laah . It is through Al-Ikhlas that the Shahaadah of la illah illa llah is realized , while through Al-Moutaba’ah of Rasoolul laah , the Shahaadah that Mohammed is Allaah’s slave and Messenger is manifested.

Some of the benefits attained by the declaration of the great Shahaadah include the liberation of the heart and soul from slavery to the created, and from following paths other than the Messenger’s path.

SECOND: Regarding the establishing of Prayers: it is worshipping Allah by performing it in the right and perfect manner19 and its prescribed times. Some of it’s benefits include the openness of the chest, contentment joys and detrainment from committing sins and wrong-doing.

THIRD: The Giving of Zakaat: is devoting worship to Allaah by offering the obligatory prescribed amount charity deducted from the wealth upon which Zakaat is due. Some of it’s benefits are : purifying the self from immoral characteristics like misery , and fulfilling the needs of Islaam and Muslims.

FOURTH: Fasting: It is devoting worship to Allaah by refraining from any everything known to nullify the fast during the days of the month of Ramadan.

Fasting coaches the self to endure the relinquishment of what it likes seeking to gain the pleasure of Allaah.

FIFTH : The Hajj to the House of Allaah: is worshipping Allaah by going to the sacred House (Al-Ka’abh) to execute the rites of Hajj.
Some of the benefits includes: the training of the self to expend the physical and financial sacrifices in obedience to Allaah تعالى . This is the reason why Hajj is considered as one kind of Jihad in the cause of Allaah تعالى.

The benefits that we have mentioned above regarding the basic of Islaam , and others which we have not mentioned ,makes of this Ummah a virtues and purified Islaamic Nation adhering to Allaah through the Deen of Truth , and treats the created with justice and truthfulness . This (conclusion) holds true because the right adherence to the rest of the Islaamic laws depends upon the proper practicability of the above basic.

The status of the Ummah will thrive and prosper as long as it properly adheres to the matters of its Deen. The degree of its prosperity that may escape is proportional to the degree of abandonment of good adherence to matters of its Deen. Whoever seek san evidence for this, let him read the saying of Allah تعالى :

( و لو أن أهل القرى آمنوا و إتقوا لفتحنا عليهم بركات من السماء و الأرض و لكن كذبوا فأخزناهم بما كانوا يكسبون أفأمن أهل القرى أن يأتيهم بأسنا بياتا و هم نائمون أو أمن أهل القرى أن يأتيهم بأسنا ضحى و هم يلعبون أفأمنوا مكر الله فلا يأمن مكر الله إلا القوم الخاسرون ) ( الأعراف ، 96-99)

And if the people of the town had believed and had the Taqwa(piety fear of Allaah) certainly , We should have opened for them the blessing from the heaven and the earth , but belied ( the Messenger) . So we took (with punishment ) for what they used to earn ( polytheism and crime ,..etc) Did the people of the towns then feel secure against that coming of our Punishment by night while they are asleep? Or, did the people of the towns then feel secure against the coming our Punishment in the afternoon while they play? Did they feel secure against the plan of Allah . None feels secure from the plan of Allaah except the people who are lost. (Qura’an 7:96-99)

Let also examine the history of those who preceded because history is a lesson for people of thought, and an insight for anyone free from any obstructing to barrier his heart. And it is Allaahh alone who’s Help can be sought.
___________________________
The Foundation of Islaamic Creed

The Deen of Islaam , as it is discussed above, is a Deen that comprises ‘ Aqeedha ( matters of faith ) and Sharee’ah (laws , Legislation and judicial aspects). We indicated some of its Laws and mentioned it Arkaan, which are considered the basis of its legislation. As to the ‘Aqeedah Al-Islaamiyyah (the Islamic Creed) , its basis are:
The belief in Allaah , His Angles , His Books, His Messengers, the last day and Al-Qadar20 , its good and bad.

These basis are verified by evidences from the book of Alaah ( i.e The Qura’an) and from the Sunah of Allaah Messenger . In His Book Allaah saya:

( ليس البر أن تولوا وجوهكم قبل المشرق و المغرب و لكن البر من آمن بالله و اليوم الآخر و الملائكة و الكتاب و النبيين) ( البقرة ، 177)

It is not Al-Birr (piety , righteousness , and each and every obedience to Allahh , etc ) that you turn your faces towards east and ( or) west ( in prayers); but Al-Birr is the (quality of) the one who believes in Allaah , the last day , the angles , the Book , the prophets. ( Qura’an 2: 177)

He (تعالى) says about Al-Qadar:

( إن كل شىء خلقناه بقدر و ما أمرنا إلا واحدة كلمح بالبصر) ( القمر ،49-50)

Verily, We have created all things with Qadar , and our commandment is but one , as the twinkling of an eye ( Qura’an 54:49-50)

In the Sunah of Allaah’s Messenger, the Prophet (puh) said in his reply to Jibreel ( Gabriel) when the latter asked him about Eaman ( Faith):

" الإيمان أن تؤمن بالله ، و ملائكته ، و كتبه ، ورسله ،و اليوم الآخر ، وتؤمن بالقدر خيره و شره " رواه مسلم .

“Eamaan is to believe in Allaah , His angles,His Books, His Messengers , and the last day , and to believr in Al-Qadaar , its good and its bad”.21
_____________________
Belief In Allaah

The Belief in Allaah Comprises Four Matters:

First: The Belief in Existence of Allaah:

The evidence for the existence of Allaah is established by :

1. Fitrah
2. Reasoning
3. Ash-Shara’a22
4. And Al-Hiss23

1- Pertaining to the Proof of the Faitrah:

Every creature has been created in a state of belief in his creator without preceding thought or education. No one dissuades from what is necessitated by the Fitrah (i.e the belief in Allaah), except the one whose heart has been subjected to what averts it from its (natural course of) Fitrah, as the prophet Mohammed explained when he said:

" ما من مولود إلا يولد على الفطرة ، فأبواه يهودانه أو ينصرانه أو يمجسانه"

“ Each child is born in a state of ” Fitrah” but his parents make him a Jew, or a Christian”24

2-The Evidence of “ Reasoning “: -

All of the creatures, the first and subsequent ones, must have a Creator Who brought them to existence, because they neither can bring themselves into existence, nor they could have come to exist by coincidence! The creatures could have not brought themselves to existence because a thing does not create it self –since prior to its existence it was nothing – so how could it be a creator? And it cannot accidentally bring into being, because every occurrence (novelty, etc.) must need an originator. Also because its existence in such highly magnificent order and homogenous coordination, and due to the coherent relationship between the means and the causes , and the creators with one another , it is absolutely impossible that is very being is coincidental . ( In fact) , what is ( believed) to exist as a result of coincidence , does not follow an ordered pattern at the beginning of its existence . so how could it remain to be ordered during its course of survival and development?
So if its impossible that the creatures have neither brought themselves into existence nor they did they came to exist by coincidence , then it becomes evident that they must have a creator , and He is Allaah , the Rabb of the world.

Allaah تعالى stated the above rational and decisive proof in Soorat Al-Tur , saying:

( أم خلقوا من غير شىء أم هم الخالقون) ( الطور ، 35)

Were they created by nothing , or they themselves the creators? { Qura’an 25:35} , Which means that they were neither created without a creator , nor they were the creators of themselves . It becomes clear , therefore , that their Creator is Allaah تعالى . That is why when Jubair Bin Mut’im heard Allaah’s Messenger reciting Soorat At-Tur , and when he ( the prophet) reached the Aayaat:

( أم خلقوا من غير شىء أم هم الخالقون أم خلقوا السموات و الأرض بل لا يوقنون أم هم عندهم خزائن ربك أم هم المسيطرون) ( سورة الطور ، 35-37)

Were they created by nothing , or were they themselves the creators? Or did they create the heavens and the earth? Nay , but they have no firm to believe . Or are the treasures of your Raab with them? Or are they the tyrants with authority to do as they like?25

Jubair , who was then a Mushrik ( polytheist), commented:

" كاد قلبى أن يطير ، وذلك أول ما وقر الإيمان فى قلبى " ( رواه البخارى – مفرقا)

“ My heart was about to fly (i.e upon hearing this firm argument)26 . In another separate narration, he said: “And that was the time when Eemaan was first settled in my heart”27

Let us give a parable that clarifies this matter: If some one tells you about a lofty palace , surrounded by gardens with rivers flowing in between , fully furnished with beds and mattresses, and decorated with all kinds of ornament, the basic , and the luxurious , then he says to you : “ This palace in all the of its perfection , has founded itself , or that it came to exit by coincidence , without a founder !” Immediately you will deny and reject his argument, and you will consider his talks as ridiculous. (With this in mind) is it, therefore , possible that this universe with its extended earth , skies , planets , conditions, wonderful and splendid order , could have brought itself into existence ? Or that it came to exist without a Creator?

3- The Ash-Shar’ah28 Evidence For The Existence of Allaah:

The Ash-Shar’ah is evidence for the existence of Allaah because all of the revealed Scriptures states so. The laws that address the welfare of creation and which are provided by these scriptures , constitute an evidence that they came from an All-Wise Rabb who knows about the welfare and interests of His creation. The information about the universe brought forth by the scriptures and whose manifestation testifies for their truthfulness, is a proof that came from the ( one) Raab Who is able to bring into being whatever He already informed about.

4- The “Physical” Evidence For The Existence of Allaah Comprises Two Aspects:-

One of them is that we hear and witness ( Allaah’s) response to all those who supplicate and those who are distressed and grieved. This constitutes an unequivocal evidence for the existence of Allahhتعالى . He تعالى says:

( و نوحا إذ نادى من قبل فاستجبنا له ) ( الأنبياء ، 76)

And ( remember ) Noah, when he cried ( to us) aforetime, We listened to his invocation ( Qura’an 21:76)

He تعالى says:

( إذ يستغيثون ربهم فإستجاب لهم ) ( الأنفال ، 9)

( Remember ) when you sought help from your Raab , and He answered you. ( Qura’an 8:9)

In Saheeh Al-Bukharee , it is reported that Anas bin Malik said that :

عن أنس بن مالك رضى الله عنه – قال : أصابت الناس سنة على عهد النبى صلى الله عليه و سلم فبينما النى صلى الله عليه وسلم يخطب بالناس فى يوم الجمعة ، قام إعرابى فقال : يا رسول الله ، هلك المال و جاع العيال فادع الله لنا ، فرفع يديه ، و ما نرى فى السماء قزعة ، فو الذى نفسى بيده ، ما وضعها حتى ثار السحاب أمثال الجبال ، ثم لم ينزل من منبره حتى رأيت المطر يتنازل على لحيته صلى الله عليه و سلم فمطرنا يومنا ذلك ، ومن الغد و بعد الغد ، و الذى يليه ، حتى الجمعة الأخرى. و قام ذلك اإعرابى أو قال غيره فقال : " يا رسول الله ، تهدم البناء ، و غرق المال ، فادع لنا الله ، فرفع فرفع يديه فقال " اللهم حوالينا ولا علينا ، فما يشير بيده غلى ناحية من السحاب و إلا إنفرجت"

“ Once in the lifetime of the prophet Mohammed the people were affected with drought. While the prophet was delivering the Khutba (religious talk) on a Friday, a Bedouin stood up and said” O,Allah ‘s Messenger ! Our possessions are being destroyed and the children are hungry; please invoke Allaah (for rain). So the prophet raised his hands ( invoked Allaah for rain) . At that time there was not a trace of cloud in the sky . By Him, in Whose Hands my soul is, clouds gathered like mountains, and before he got down from the pulpit , I saw the rain falling on his ( prophet) beard.. It rained that day, the next day, the third day , the fourth day till the next day. The Bedouin or another man stood up and said “ O Allaah ‘s Messenger! the houses have collapsed , our possessions and livestock have been drowned; please invoke Allaah for us ( to stop the rain). “ So the prophet raised his both his hands and said “ O Allaah ! Round about us and not on us , So in whatever direction he pointed with his hands , the clouds disappeared and cleared away…29

Responding to the invocations of the supplicant who sincerely resort to Allaah (alone) and fulfill the required condition for Ijaabah30 is a matter that is still being witnessed nowadays.

The second aspect is that the signs of the prophets which is called Mu’jizaaat (Miracles) and which people see or hear about, constitute and irrevocable evidence for the existence of the One who dispatched them: that’s Allah تعالى. Certainly these matters ( Mu’jizzat ) are beyond the capability of mankind and that Allaah manifests them to help and support His Messengers. For example, the Sign given to Musa when Allaah commanded him to strike the sea with stick. He strokes it and the sea parted into twelve dry roads separated by water, which become like a huge mountain. Allaah تعالى saya:

( فأوحينا إلى موسى أن اضرب بعصاك البحر فانفلق فكان كل فرق كالطود العظيم ) ( الشعراء ، 63)

Then We inspired M