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منتدى إنما المؤمنون إخوة The Believers Are Brothers

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ثمانون مسألة فقهية وتربوية من أحكام يوم عاشوراء إعلام الأشرار بحكم الطعن بالصحابة الأبرار مسائل شهر الله المحرم فضل عاشوراء وشهر المحرم شهر الله المُحرَّم وصيام عاشوراء الشيخ علي الطنطاوي والعام الجديد لا مزية لآخر جمعة في العام البدع التي أحدثت في شهر المُحرَّم عاشــــــــــــــــــوريات ورقاتٌ في [يوم عَاشُوراء] مسائلٌ وأحكامٌ 22 فضيلة لمن صام عاشوراء حكم الاحتفال بعاشوراء أو إقامة المآتم فيه عاشوراء بين هدي الإسلام وهدي الجهلاء شهر الله الأصم (المحرم) هجرة الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم كانت في ربيع الأول ولم تكن في المُحرَّم مع الحسين -رضي الله عنه- في كربلاء لماذا يخافون من الإسلام؟ معالم إيمانية من يوم عاشوراء عاشوراء والهجرة النبوية من أيام الله تعالى لماذا لا نجعل يوم مقتل الحسين مأتماً؟ أَثَرٌ مَشْهُورٌ يُرَدَّدُ فِي نَهَايَةِ كُلِّ عَامٍ رأس السنة هــــل نحتفل به؟ هكذا نستقبل العام الجديد فضل شهر الله المحرّم وصيام عاشوراء فتاوى حول صيام عاشوراء الترغيب في صوم المُحرَّم عاشوراء وصناعة الكراهية وتجديد الأحقاد إلى متى؟ عاشوراء ودعوى محبة الحسين أحاديث عاشورية موضوعة منتشرة في بعض المنتديات عاشوراء والهجرة النبوية من أيام الله تعالى مآتم الرافضة في يوم عاشوراء رسالة في أحاديث شهر الله المحرَّم جــــــداول شهـر الله الـمحرم وعاشـوراء ما صح وما لم يصح من أحاديث في يوم عاشوراء مـاذا تعرف عـن عـاشــوراء شهر الله المحرم قصتا عاشوراء صفة صيام النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لعاشوراء شهر محرم ويوم عاشوراء الطود العظيم في نجاة موسى الكليم وهلاك فرعون اللئيم البدع التي أحدثت في شهر محرم الأحاديث الواردة في صيام عاشوراء الأشهر الحُرم بداية التاريخ الهجري


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 Do Miracles Necessite Divinity?

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مُساهمةموضوع: Do Miracles Necessite Divinity?   31/07/17, 10:15 pm

Do Miracles Necessite Divinity?
Islam Religion Website
http://www.islamreligion.com/
Written by: Laurence B. Brown, MD
============================
Some associate Jesus with divinity because he performed miracles. Many Unitarian Christians and all Muslims point out that Jesus did indeed perform miracles, but by the will of God and not through any divine powers of his own. 

To repeat the quote of Acts 2:22:
“Jesus of Nazareth, a man attested by God to you by miracles, wonders, and signs which God did through him in your midst, as you yourselves also know” (italics mine) In conformity with both the Bible and Holy Quran, Muslims contend that the miracles of Jesus were performed by the power of God.

As the Holy Quran states, "Then will Allah say, “O Jesus the son of Mary! Recount My favor to you and to your mother. Behold! I strengthened you with the holy spirit, so that you spoke to the people in childhood and in maturity. Behold! I taught you the Book and Wisdom, the Torah and the Gospel. And behold! You made out of clay, as it were, the figure of a bird, by My leave, and you breathed into it, and it became a bird by My leave, and you healed those born blind, and the lepers, by My leave. And behold! You brought forth the dead by My leave." (Quran 5:110)

The Islamic perspective is that miracles can be God-given signs of prophethood, but don’t imply divinity.  Hadith (narrations of the words, deeds, appearance, and tacit approvals of Muhammad) relate numerous miracles of Muhammad with greater historical authenticity than found in biblical manuscripts. While the science of hadith authentication is regarded as a wonder of historical recordkeeping, the Bible doesn’t satisfy many of the most basic standards of historical accuracy.* For example, the authors of most of the books of the Bible (gospels included) are unknown, the time period in which they were written is ill-defined, and the source of much of the information is ambiguous. These issues will be discussed later at greater length, but just as a small teaser, let’s examine the story of Judas’ betrayal of Jesus to the chief priests. Who was the author, and why should we believe him? Was he present at the betrayal? If not, then where did he get his information? And if so, and he didn’t alert Jesus, then isn’t he a partner to the crime? And what kind of a gospel author would that be?

Sounds silly? Maybe! But then again, isn’t it sillier to trust salvation to a compilation of gospels and letters of unknown origin and authorship? The Jesus Seminar is perhaps one of the most objective and sincere attempts of an ecumenical council of Christian scholars to determine the authenticity of the recorded acts and sayings of Jesus. Yet their methodology involves casting votes! Two thousand years after the ministry of Jesus, nearly two hundred scholars are formulating a collective Christian opinion regarding the reliability of the quotes and historical reports of Jesus by casting colored beads.

For example, as regards the reported words of Jesus, the definitions of the bead colors are as follows:
Red—Jesus said it or something very close to it.  Pink—Jesus probably said something like it, although his words have suffered in transmission.  Gray—these are not his words, but the ideas are close to his own. Black—Jesus did not say it; the words represent the Christian community or a later point of view.[1] Other Christian committees have attempted to authenticate Bible texts by similar methodologies.
The editors of the United Bible Societies’ The Greek New Testament: Second Edition are alphabetically minded:
By means of the letters A, B, C, and D, enclosed within “braces” {} at the beginning of each set of textual variants the Committee has sought to indicate the relative degree of certainty, arrived at the basis of internal considerations as well as of external evidence, for the reading adopted as the text. The letter A signifies that the text is virtually certain, while B indicates that there is some degree of doubt. The letter C means that there is a considerable degree of doubt whether the text of the apparatus contains the superior reading, while D shows that there is a very high degree of doubt concerning the reading selected for the text.[2]

Bruce M. Metzger describes using similar methodology in his A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament.  “In fact,” he writes, “among the {D} decisions sometimes none of the variant readings commended itself as original, and therefore the only recourse was to print the least unsatisfactory reading.”[3]

Now doesn’t that give us a warm, secure feeling in trusting the Bible with the salvation of mankind? But I digress. The point is that these ranking systems are probably about the best possible, given the limitations of the biblical record, but what a sad comment that is! Compared to the exquisitely refined system of hadith authentication, these colored-bead and A-B-C-D classification systems are a bit wanting, to say the least.

The historical record keeping is relevant, for when a person hears a story—even a credible story at that—the first question is usually “Where did you hear that?” Any reasonable set of historical standards includes the identification and verification of sources. The Holy Quran and many hadith traditions satisfy the highest degrees of authentication.  But the majority of Bible verses don’t.*

How does this relate to the issue at hand?  Simple. The miracles that occurred through Muhammad are no less numerous or impressive than those of Jesus, and are witnessed by an unimpeachable historical record that puts all others of similar time period to shame.  So just as the miracles of Moses, Elisha, and Muhammad don’t imply divinity, neither do those of Jesus.

Let’s look at a few examples:
    Jesus fed thousands with a few fish and loaves of bread. But Elisha fed a hundred people with twenty barley loaves and a few ears of corn (2 Kings 4:44); granted a widow such an abundant flow of oil from a jar that she was able to pay off her debts, save her sons from slavery, and live on the profits (2 Kings 4:1-7); and gave increase to a handful of flour and spot of oil such that he, a widow and her son had enough to eat for many days, after which “The bin of flour was not used up, nor did the jar of oil run dry …” (1 Kings 17:10-16). 

So what does that make Elisha?  The historical record of Muhammad feeding the masses with a handful of dates on one occasion, a pot of milk on another, and enough meat for a small party on still another are equally miraculous. Likewise are the stories of his watering the masses (1,500 people on one occasion) from a single bowl of water. Yet no Muslim claims divinity for Muhammad.

•    Jesus healed the lepers. Likewise, Elisha healed Naaman (2 Kings 5:7-14).  For that matter, the disciples were bidden to such service in Matthew 10:8.  What does that make them?

    Jesus cured a blind man. Elisha not only struck his enemies blind, but restored vision to the blind through prayer (2 Kings 6:17-20).  Muhammad reportedly cured blindness through prayer as well.

    Jesus raised the dead. Once again, Elisha beat him to it, having raised two children from the dead (1 Kings 17:22 and 2 Kings 4:34). Furthermore, the disciples were bidden to raise the dead (Matthew 10:8).  So once again, what does that make them?

    Jesus walked on water. Had he been around in the time of Moses, he wouldn’t have had to.

    Jesus cast out devils. So did his disciples (Matthew 10:8). So did the sons of the Pharisees (Matthew 12:27 and Luke 11:19). So, for that matter, do the wayward followers whom Jesus will reportedly disown (see Matthew 7:22)—a disconcerting thought considering how many priests and ministers perform such theatrics, even if real. So if we seek evidence of Jesus being divine, we are forced to look beyond miracles.
ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ
Copyright © 2007 Laurence B. Brown; used by permission.
The above excerpt is taken from Dr. Brown’s forthcoming book, MisGod’ed, which is expected to be published along with its sequel, God’ed. Both books can be viewed on Dr. Brown’s website, www.LevelTruth.com. Dr. Brown can be contacted at BrownL38@yahoo.com
______________________________
Footnotes:
* For more in-depth study, the reader is referred to Hadith Literature: Its Origins, Development and Special Features, by Muhammad Zubayr Siddiqi (Islamic Texts Society, London, 1993), and Studies in Hadith Methodology and Literature, by Muhammad Mustafa Azami (American Trust Publications, Indianapolis, 1977).

[1] Funk, Robert Walter. 1996. Honest to Jesus, Jesus for a New Millennium. Polebridge Press. p. 8.
[2] Aland, Kurt, Matthew Black, Carlo M. Martini, Bruce M. Metzger & Allen Wikgren (Editors). 1968. The Greek New Testament. Second Edition. United Bible Societies. pp. x-xi.
[3] Metzger, Bruce M. A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament. Introduction, p. 14.
* Whereas hadith are preserved work-for-word, “there are more differences among our [biblical] manuscripts than there are words in the New Testament” – Ehrman, Bart D. Misquoting Jesus. p.10.


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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Do Miracles Necessite Divinity?   31/07/17, 10:58 pm

Slavery and servitude will not be successfully abolished until humankind recognizes that God’s laws are the true embodiment of human rights. The same can be said of torture, and cruel and inhuman punishments. These detestable actions will not cease to exist until humankind as a whole realizes that there is a God and the worship of Him goes beyond coveting the life of this world. Torture exists today even though treaties and declarations including article five of the Universal Declaration of Human rights, call for the abandonment of such ill treatment.

Cruelty, including excessive punishment is forbidden in Islam. Each member of the human race is treated with due respect and dignity, regardless of race, colour creed, or nationality.

Prophet Muhammad expressly prohibited cruel and unusual punishments even in times of war. He made it clear that no one should be burned alive or tortured with fire, and that wounded soldiers should not be attacked and prisoners of war should not be killed.  He said to his followers, “You are neither hard hearted nor fierce of character,” [2] and he warned his people of being unjust, “For injustice shall be darkness on the Day of Requital.” [3]

Even prisoners of war in early Islamic history spoke highly of their captors.  Blessings be on the men of Medina', said one of these prisoners in later days, 'they made us ride while they themselves walked; they gave us wheaten bread to eat when there was little of it, contenting themselves with dates." [4] 

The second Caliph of Islam, Omar Ibn Al Khattab said, “A person would not be held responsible for his confession, if you inflicted pain upon him or scared him or imprisoned him [to obtain the confession].” [5]

The Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam states in article 20 that “No one is to be arrested or his freedom restricted, exiled, or punished without adequate legal action.

Individuals must not be subjected to physical or psychological torment or any other humiliating treatment.”

The enforcement of human rights in Islam is linked inextricably to the implementation of Islamic law. Islam promises that those who follow God’s rules and regulations will be rewarded with His guarantee of eternal Paradise. 

However choosing to restrict or take away rights given to humankind by God is a punishable offence. “On the Day of Requital, rights will be given to those to whom they are due (and wrongs will be redressed)...”[6]
________________________________________
Footnotes:
[1]  Saheeh Al-Bukhari

[2]  Saheeh Al-Bukhari
[3]  Ibid.
[4]  From the works of orientalist writer Sir William Muir (1819-1905)
[5]  Reported by Abu Yusuf in the book Al Kharaj
[6]  Saheeh Muslim

Islam is the religion revealed for all of humankind. It is not exclusively for Arabs or Asians, men, or women, the wealthy or the downtrodden. Islam is the religion and way of life that assures that humankind is able to access all of their rights. It makes sense to think that the One Who created us knows what is best for us, and He (God) has given us access to all the knowledge we need in order to live happy secure lives.

Muslims believe that this knowledge is accessible through the Quran and the authentic traditions of Prophet Muhammad, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him, and that it is guaranteed by the Sharia (Islamic Law). Islam establishes a legal framework, and embodies a code of ethics, designed to protect the rights of an individual including his or her right to live in a secure society.

Prophet Muhammad said, “Whosoever wakes up (in the morning) feeling that he is secure in his community, free from ailments and diseases in his body, and has enough provision for a single day, it is as if he owns the entire world.” (Tirmidhi)

The Sharia is concerned with preserving five basic rights: the right to practice religion, the protection of life, the safeguarding of the mind or intellect, the preservation of honour and family, and the sanctity of his wealth and property. A unified community establishes a moral and ethical base in which individual rights are upheld.  Although the rights of individuals are of great concern, they are not permitted to overshadow the rights of the community.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights contains 30 articles. They strive to secure life, liberty, and security for all men, women, and children. There is no doubt that the preservation of this declaration is a righteous act however each article has been adequately addressed in the past by the words of God in Quran and the traditions of Prophet Muhammad.
Article 1 & 2
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. 

Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional, or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.
Quran & Traditions
There are many verses in Quran that point to the dignity, equality, and brotherhood of humankind. Furthermore, God makes it clear that rights and freedoms are granted to all, regardless of race, gender, social origin, nationality, language, colour, or status. Allah says, "O mankind! We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another. Verily, the most honourable of you with God is that (believer) who has taqwa (piety and righteousness). Verily, God is All Knowing, All-Aware.” (Quran 48:13)

God created humankind to act as vicegerent upon the earth; human beings were set above the animals, birds, and fish and given a task of great responsibility. Allah says, “See you not (O men) that God has subjected for you whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth, and has completed and perfected His Graces upon you, (both) apparent and hidden.”  (Quran 31:20)

The first man Adam, the father of humankind was honoured and treated with due respect and dignity. God blew man’s soul into him, He fashioned him with His own hands and He ordered the Angels to bow down before him. By honouring Adam God assured that all of humankind are worthy of dignity and respect. Islam also makes it clear that all mankind is descended from Adam and as such are brothers and sisters to one another. Allah says, "And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels: ‘I am going to create a human (Adam) from clay. So when I have fashioned him and breathed into him (his) soul created by Me, then you fall down prostrate to him.” (Quran 38:71-72)

God said in Quran (49:10) that believers are nothing less than brothers to one another and Prophet Muhammad constantly reinforced the necessity of maintaining the ties of brotherhood.  He said that no person would attain true piety until he wished for his brother (or sister) what he wished for himself. [1]

When Prophet Muhammad realised he would soon be returning to his beloved God, he addressed all of humanity with profound and beautiful words that became known as the Farewell Sermon. He gazed down upon more than 100,000 thousand followers standing on the plains of Arafat, and said, “All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab, nor does a non-Arab have any superiority over an Arab. A white has no superiority over black nor does a black have any superiority over white except by piety and good action. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood.”[2]
Article 3
Everyone has the right to life, liberty, and security of person.
Quran & Traditions
“We ordained ...that if anyone killed a person not in retaliation of murder, or (and) to spread mischief in the land - it would be as if he killed all mankind, and if anyone saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of all mankind.”  (Quran 5:32)

God makes it clear in Quran that human life is sacred. Blood cannot be spilled or life taken without justification. The right to life is inherent in the tenants of Islam and it is given by God, in equal measure to every single human being that has inhabited or will inhabit this planet earth. It is given to us by our Creator as a trust. We are obligated to care for each other and ourselves. Suicide out of despair of God’s mercy or for any other reason is strictly forbidden. The sanctity of the body is inviolable and the bodies of the deceased must be handled with care and fitting solemnity.

“Say (O Muhammad): ‘Come, I will recite what your Lord has prohibited you from: Join not anything in worship with Him; be good and dutiful to your parents; kill not your children because of poverty - We provide sustenance for you and for them; come not near to shameful sins whether committed openly or secretly, and kill not anyone whom God has forbidden, except for a just cause (according to Islamic law). This He has commanded you that you may understand.” (Quran 6:151)
________________________________________
Footnotes:
[1]  Saheeh Al-Bukhari

[2] The text of the Farewell Sermon can be found in Saheeh Al-Bukhari and Saheeh Muslim, and in the books of At Tirmidhi and Imam Ahmad
.


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Do Miracles Necessite Divinity?
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