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 AL HAJJ

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مُساهمةموضوع: AL HAJJ   27/07/17, 03:18 pm

AL HAJJ
BY: EL-BAHAY  EL- KHOLI
Translated by: Dr. ABDALLA METWALLI
=================================
Introduction.
The Pilgrimge  (Al-Hajj) And Lesser Pilgrimage (Al-Umra) in Language and Islamic Jurispurdance.

Some Ordiances of The Pilgrimage and Lesser Pilgrimage.
To Whom is The Pilgrimage Obligatory?
Stations (Mawaqit)of The Pilgrimage and Lesser Pilgrimage.
The Pilgrimage and Lesser Pilgrimage.
Terms of  Special Signifcance.
Ceremonies of Hajj and Umra.
Some Rules Concerning The Hajj.
Visiting The Mosque of The Prophet.


INTRODUCTION
Praise be to Allah, and may He bless His Prophet. Pilgrimage has detailed implication that may escape the notice of many readers of the Quran.

It is a definite obligation, and one of the five pillars of Islam that were defined by the Prophet as follows:
"Testimony that there is no God but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, prayers, Zakat (alms to the poor), fasting in Ramadan and pilgrimage to the Ka'ba."

The implications which we mention are not to be sought here but lie behind these words of Allah:
"And proclaim the pilgrimage among men; they will come to you on foot and upon each lean camel, they will come from every deep ravine".

This verse of the Quran caught the attention of Muslim scholars who wondered at the idea that once the voice of the summoner is heard from the mosque at Mecca, the people will come from every deep ravine.

Yet their wondering did not last long for it dawned upon them that though human effort is limited in its extent, God's power is infinite. They explain the meaning of the verse by saying that when God said to Ibrahim: "Proclain the pilgrimage among men, etc.", Ibrahim said to him : "Oh Lord, and how can my voice reach to the horizons ?" God answered him saying : "I `will make sure the call reached whoever I wish, though he be at the ends of the earth" The pilgrim, in this sense answers a divine call the moment he sets out on his pilgrimage.

God has instilled this into his innermost heart, and he devoutly answers:
"O Lord, here I come ! I come to you who have no partner Praise and blessing and power be yours `." His Lord has called to him and be answers by saying : "Here I come !" (Labbayka). The implication here is that each pilgrim should be truly aware of what is being presented to him; that he is being summoned by his Lord, the Lord of creation, to visit him and that he should recognize that the invitation is an honour. Each pilgrim, when he enters the harm, must keep his feelings under strict control and drive away all evil thoughts.

It is against this that God has warned us:
"And whosoever seeks wrong-doing therein we shall canse to taste a grievous punishment." it is evident here that God inflicts punishment not only on evil doing, but also on wishing evil, for in the presence of God one should not allow one's thoughts to wander.

This book is a pointer to some of the obligations which we must observe in visiting the Holy Places. In it will be found collected the tenets which determine the rites of the pilgrimage and the manner of our fulfilling the Divine ordinance.

May God help you to follow His laws, and thus attain grace. 
Peace be upon you
BAHAY EL-KHOLY


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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: AL HAJJ   27/07/17, 03:26 pm


THE PILGRIMGE (AL-HAJJ) AND LESSER PILGRIMAGE
(AL-UMRA) IN LANGUAGE AND ISLAMIC JURISPRUDENCE
    1) The literal meaning of Hajj in Arabic is to set out towards a definite objective. In Islamic law it means to set out for the Ka'ba, the Sacred House, and to fulfil the pilgrimage rites.

    2) Umra is derived from I'timar meaning a visit. In Islamic law it means visiting the Sacred House, drawing near to God in accordance with the rules which are subsequently referred to.

The distinctions between Hajj and Umra will be pointed out in due course.

SOME ORDINANCES OF THE PILGRIMAGE AND LESSER PILGRIMGE
    1) Pilgrimage is an obligation for Muslims, according to the precepts of the Holy Quran and the Sunna (Practice of the Prophet and Companions).
 
    a) In the Quran God says:
      "Pilgrimage thereto is a duty men owe' to God, those who are able to make the journey" This means that Pilgrimage is a duty imposed on all Muslims and which they cannot avoid so long as they are able to find the means to do so.

   b) As for the Sunna, Ibn `Abbas reported that the Prophet said in one of his speeches:
      "O people, pilgrimage is ordained for you- so fulfil it." Then al-Aqra' Ibn Habis asked : "Is it to be yearly,O Messenger of God?" To this the Prophet replied "If I say so, it will be taken for an obligation which lies beyond your power... Pilgrimage is to be performed once, and whoever performs it more than once does so voluntarily".
 
     2) According to the above-mentioned hadith (saying of the Prophet), pilgrimage is a duty one owes to God once in the course of one's life to do so more than once is voluntary. All the scholars (`Ulama) have agreed upon this.

     3) As for the Lesser Pilgrimage, some scholar state that it is desirable, but not compulsory, quoting Abu Hurayra, who reported that the Prophet said "Pilgrimage is a duty, but the Lesser Pilgrimage is optional." Once a Bedouin came to the Prophet and said : "O Messenger of God tell me about the Umra, is it a duty ?" The Prophet answered : "No, but it is better for you that you perform it".

    The Messenger of God recommended the quick fulfilment of the pilgrimage : "He who intends to set out on a pilgrimage must hasten he may fall sick, lose his means of conveyance, or be faced with poverty".

   TO WHOM IS THE PLGRIMAGE OBLIGATORY?
       1) The pilgrimage is incumbent upon the adult Muslim in full possession of his faculties It is not to be demanded from other than Muslims, nor from children or lunatics, in accordance with the words of the Prophet "The pen is withdrawn from three persons - i.e. which records human acts pending Divine Judgement - "the sleeper till he awakes, the child till he grows up, and the lunatic till he is cured of his insanity".

      2) The pilgrimage is a duty for those who can afford it, as mentioned in the Quran.
"Pilgrimage to the Ka'ba is a duty men owe to God, those who are able to make the journey".

    The `Ulama interpret these words of Allah as the ability to meet the expenses of travel and make provision for themselves and for their families at home. This of course, does not concern the inhabitants of Mecca or its vicinity.

     In this connection one should note the tremendous progress-in means of transport such as steamers, planes and trains. So one may assume that "those who are able to make the journey" would mean those who have the money to pay for their fare, and provide for themselves and the members of their household at home.

    3) As has already been mentioned, it is not an obligation for boys to go on the pilgrimage. But if they do accompany their families, it is something laudable ; that does not exempt them from pilgrimage when they come of age.

    If boys have not reached the age of discrimination, their parents or their guardians carry out all the rites of Hajj for them. This practice was followed by the Prophet himself, according to a tradition of jabir Ibn Abdallah. According to al-San'ani, the guardian says on his behalf, speaking from the heart "I have placed him in a state of sanctity (Ihram)."

      4) As regards women, there are other further conditions to be taken into account. Some `Ulama insist that women must be accompanied as an escort, by a close relative such as a brother or a son (Maharim). Others are not so adamant on this point, saying that she must perform the pilgrimage whether she has a close relative with her or not.

     5) He who dies without performing his pilgrimage is acquitted of this obligation if his descendants carry out the pilgrimage in his name and with his own money, or if they provide a substitute to do this by proxy.

     6) If any man is incapacitated by old age or incurable disease he may choose some person to perform the pilgrimage on his behalf. Pilgrimage by proxy is not valid unless the person designated has himself already performed the Hajj.
 
              STATIONS (MAWAQIT) OF THE PILGRIMAGE AND LESSER 
       The word "Mawaqit" here widens its sense in such a way as to include both the original sense of time and also place. In other words, it signifies the times and the places from which the actual rites of pilgrimage begin.

 THE PILGRIMAGE AND LESSER PILGRMIAGE
Time of Hajj and`Umra:
As regards the pilgrimage, the times referred to are those defined by God in His words "The pilgrimage is in the well-known months". These months are Shawwal, Dhu'l Qa'ada, Dhu'l Hijja. The`Ulama added that only the first ten days of Dhul-Hijja are included. Thus it is not allowed to enter into the state of consecration (lhram) for the pilgrimage before these months, that is to say, before the month of Shawwal. As for the Lesser Pilgrimage, it is not limited to any definite time of the year. Here is one of the distinctions between the Hajj and `Umra. It is said that the Prophet himself performed it once in shawwal and another time in Dhu'l-Qa'da, though he declared that `Umra in Ramadan (the month of fasting) is equal to the Hajj in gaining God's blessing without meaning, of course, that it would replace it.

       2) Stations of Assembly (Mawdqit Makaniya). This refers to the places outside Mecca at which Muslims assemble before entering the Haram. On reaching these assembly points they prepare themselves both physically and spiritually for this sacred duty. These places were defined by religious law, and each is termed a Miqat. The Prophet fixed these places to the South, East and North of Mecca.

They are as follows
     a) Dhu'l-Hulayfa: It is a place situated North of Mecca at a distance of 450 kilometres. It is the station allotted to the inhabitants of Madina and those to the North of it.

     b) al-Juhfa: It is a village North-West of Mecca which was a station for the people of the Levant. This village became ruined long ago, and in its place there is the village of Rabigh, which is the Mikat of the people of the A.R.E. Turkey, the Balkan countries, Syria, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco, and those coming from the North, or North West.

   c) Yalamlam: It is a mountain South of Mecca appointed by the Prophet as a station for the people of Yemen and those coming from countries lying southwards.

    d)Qarn al-Mandzil: It is a mountain East of Mecca, and considered the station of the people of Najd, and those coming from the East.

      Any person who reaches his destined station has to enter into a state of consecration called Ihram.

      People whose abodes lie between these stations and Mecca have to assume Ihrdm at the moment and the places from which they start their sacred journey. As for the Meccans, they assume Ihram from their homes. If the Ihram is meant for the Lesser Pilgrimage, the Meccans have to go beyond the Haram.
assume Ihram, and then proceed on their pilgrimage.


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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: AL HAJJ   27/07/17, 03:37 pm

 TERMS OF SPECIAL SIGNIFICANCE
     Before dealing with the rites of the pilgrimage, there are some terms that need explanation such as Ihram, Ifrad Qiran, Tamattu'. Ihram implies, literally, prohibition, and entails the abstention from things that are hithefto allowed. The opposite of Ihram is Ihlal.

Ifrad, Qiran, and Tamattu:
      To grasp the significance of these terms, it is best to mention the various observances of the Pilgrimage and the Lesser Pilgrimage. The observances of the Lesser Pilgrimage are : Ihram, circumambulation of the Ka'ba, the running between Safa and Marwa, and having the head shaved, or the hair cut. With this the Ihram for the Lesser Pilgrimage come to an end and all restrictions are lifted.

     As for the Pilgrimage, the observances are Ihram, the circuit of the Ka'ba, the running between Safa and Marwa, the standing (Wuquf) at Mount Arafat on the 9th of Dhul-hijja, the throwing of the pebbles on the Day of Sacrifice 10th of Dhul'-Hijja), together with other observances to be mentioned later.

     From this we can discern some differences between the Pilgrimage and the Lesser Pilgrimage. The ceremonies of the Pilgrimage exceed these of Umra. While the Ihram for the Lesser Pilgrimage ends with the running between Safa and Marwa, and having the head shaved or the hair cut, Ihram for the Pilgrimage ceases only after the standing at Mount Arafat, and performing all the rites of the 10th of Dhul-Hijja.

       Furthermore, the Pilgrimage is confined to well- known months, whereas the Lesser Pilgrimage is performed at any time.

    What will happen if `Umra occurs during the months of the Hajj ? Here it is possible for a person to belong to one of three categories Mufrid, Qarin and Mutamatti. 

      a) If the pilgrim intends to perform the Hajj alone, he is called Mufrid, meaning he has not thought of combining the `Umra with Hajj. He who intends from the very start to combine both `Umra and Hajj is called Qarin. So the difference here lies only in the primary intention, and not in rites observed, whether he be a Mufrid or a Qarin.

    But there is the case of a person who intends the `Umra first, carries out all its rites, and is freed from Ihram. He thus relieves himself of the limitation, imposed by this state of consecration till the 8th day of Dhu'l Hijja, when he reassumes Ihram for the Hajj. Such a person is called Mutamatti'.

    The Mutamatti' should not under any circumstances have already driven his sacrificial beast to the Ka'ba. The three cases are illustrated by the testimony of `Ai'sha:
"We accompanied the Apostle of God (Prayers and God's Peace be upon him), on the Farewell Pilgrimage. Some of us assumed Ihram and cried Labbayka with the intention of performing the `Umra, others with the explicit desire to combine both the Hajj and `Umra, and others to perform the Hajj alone."
 
CEREMONIES OF HAJJ AND UMRA
There are observances connected with the Pilgrimage and Lesser Pilgrimage which are followed by all Muslims
 1) Ihram: 
  a)  Ihram is the assumption of a spiritual and physical state of consecration. The practice is that a man should perform ablution shortly before get ting to the assembly station (Miqat) or at the station itself, scent himself and pray two prostrations (Rak'as).

Ibn `Abbas reported that on reaching Dhul'-Hulayfa, the station of the inhabitants of Madina, the Apostle of God assumed Ihram, prayed two Rak'as and mounted his camel. As for women during post-natal bleeding and menstruation, they are allowed to enter into Ihram and to perform all rites with the exception only of circumambulation of the Ka'ba.

     In the state of Ihram one is called Muhrim. The pilgrim puts on the Ihram garb which is a simple, white, unsewn garment thrown across the body, leaving the right arm and shoulder bare. It consists of two pieces without seams or decorations and made of any cloth excepting silk. One of these pieces is folded round the loins, the other thrown over the neck and shoulders, leaving the right arm free. The latter is called the Rida and the former the Izar. The head is uncovered though the aged and in firm are permitted to fold something around their heads in return for alms to be given to the poor. The region of the ankle bones must be bare and sandals are worn for this purpose. An alternative may be a shoe with the upper leather cut away to reveal the ankles. As regards women, they are traditionally clad in a long garment reaching from head to foot and revealing only the face and hands.

     When thus attired, the Muhrim begins by calling out "Labbayka ! Labbayka !" (Here I come, O Lord !). He thus expresses his intention to perform the act, whether his journey be made for purposes of Hajj or `Umra, or both combined.

b) Prohibited acts during Ihram:
      While in this state of Ihram, the pilgrim neither shaves nor trims his fingers, nor washes, apart from the ceremonial ablutions at the various stations of the journey. Neither is he allowed any licentiousness of language, sexual intercourse, or any wickedness or vice, quarrels or acts of violence.

God has forbidden such acts in the Quran: 
     "The pilgrimage is in the well-known months; whoever is minded to perform the pilgrimage therein (let him remember) there is to be no sexual intercourse, no abuse, nor angry conversation, on the pilgrim age".
 
    In matters of dress, nothing is allowed apart from the Izar (waistwrapper) the Rida (robe) and the na'l (sandals). Hence a Muhrim is not permitted to wear shirts, trousers, gloves, turbans, a fez or hat, or any sewn or dyed cloth. Though women are allowed to wear the garments they , they are not allowed to put on gloves or a face veil, or to use sweet-scented perfumes, or wear dresses wholly or partially dyed with saffron.

Hunting is also prohibited, either alone or in a group. Nor is the Muhrim allowed to buy the hunted animal or accept it as a present, or even eat it. But the Prophet allowed the Muhrim to kill harmful or dangerous animals and birds such as the crow, the kite, the scorpion, rats, and the rabid dog. The Ulama added to the list the lion, the leopard, the wolf, and the serpent.

2) Talbiya:
      A Muslim punctuates his devotion, from his first entry into the consecrated state of Ihram to the throwing of the stones at Mina, by this devout cry: "Labbayka ! Labbayka ! Here I come O Lord ! Here I come."

    A pilgrim making the Lesser Pilgrimage(`Umra) performs the Talbiya (i.e. Cries (Labbayka!) from his assuming Ihram till he enters the Sacred Mosque and touches the Black Stone. It is desirable that this cry should be uttered in a loud voice.

The Talbiya is one of the rites of the Pilgrimage and Lesser Pilgrimage and the form of the Prophet's observance of it was as follows:
      "Labbayka ! O God, Labbayka ! Labbayka! You have no partner, Labbayka ! Praise and grace be yours and authority undivided".

3) Tawaf (Circumambulation of the Ka'ba):
      Before entering Mecca the Muhrim must perform ablutions, go to the Sacred Mosque and when his eyes light upon it he says:
    "O God, you are peace, and peace derives from You. So greet us, O Lord, with peace". On entering the Mosque he makes for the Black Stone which he kisses, or if prevented by the crowds from doing so, he touches it. If he is unable to touch it, he raises his hand and cries : "God is Great" (Takbir), whenever he faces each corner of it. Starting from the Black Stone and keeping the building on his left hand, he makes the seven circuits, the three first quickly, the remaining four at a normal gait. Certain prayers are repeated, and at the end of every circuit the Black Stone is kissed, or touched. Women during their menstruation and postnatal bleeding are prevented from making the circumambulation (Tawaf). 


It was reported that `A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, lamented her fate when prevented from performing this rite. The Prophet reminded her that that was the female lot, and that Tawaf should not be performed before ablution.

    The pilgrim in his Tawaf, usually throws the end of his Rida over his left shoulder, keeping its middle under his elbow, so that his right shoulder is bare and the left covered. People who are incapacitated in any way can perform the Tawaf riding or being carried.

On completion of the Tawaf, the pilgrim repairs to the station of Ibrahim (maqam) and recites God's words:
"And take ye the station Ibrahim as a place of prayers.":
Then he faces the Ka'ba, standing midway between it and the station, and then prays two Rak'as. He recites in every Rak'a the opening chapter of the Quran (AI-Fatiha). In the first he recites the verse of the Quran "Say He is God, the one and only", and in the second he recites : "Say O you who are unbelievers, I worship not that which you worship..."

The hastening between Safa and Marwa:
     4)The next rite is that of running between the two eminences called Safa and Marwa. On reaching Safa he recites God's words "Behold! Safa and Marwa are among the symbols of God'!.

    He ascends Safa, faces the Ka'ba, and raises his hands in thanksgiving. Then he walks down at a normal gait until he reaches the valley between Safa and Marwa, where he quickens his pace. On reaching Marwa he ascends, and follows the same practice as that observed on Safa.

    This walking up and down between Safa and Marwa is carried out seven times, and it is said that it commemorates the wandering of Hajar over the same ground in search of water for her child Ismael.

5) Head shaving or the cutting of the hair:
    After the ceremonies at Safa and Marwa the Muhrim intent on the Hajj alone, or `Umra and Hajj combined, remains in his state of consecration.

    But if he is Mutamatti', i.e. intending Umra, followed by Hajj, he may relinquish his Ihram, now that the Umra is ended. He can now have his head shaved, or his hair cut. As for women, they need only shorten their hair and not have their heads shaved, as the Prophet recommended. The Mutamatti' must only comply with these words of Allah.
 
   "If any one wishes to continue the `Umra into the Hajj, he must make an offering, such as he can afford". This offering ranges from a sheep, to a cow up to a camel.

6) Leaving Mecca on the way of the watering (al-Tarwiya):
        The 8th of Dhu'l-Hijja is called al-Tarwiya because on this day the pilgrims provide themselves with water for the days which follow. The Mutamatti! re-enter into the state of Ihram, and joins the other pilgrims in leaving Mecca for Mina which they reach at noon. They perform their noon, afternoon, sunset, and evening prayers and spend the night at Mina. The next day they perform their morning prayers, wait for sunrise, and leave for Mount Arafat. This was the practice observed by the Prophet and it is desirable that Muslims follow m his steps.